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Jeremiah, Chapter 22
The Earthly House of David Terminated
Chapter 22 is a special landmark in God's Word. The beginning of the Jewish state had been contrary to God's will (1 Sam.8:7). It was based entirely on the people's rejection of God's will and their desire to be like the nations around them. It is not surprising that this sinful kingdom became the scandal of ancient times, and they fully deserved the Word of the LORD to Amos. Amos 9:8 Behold, the eyes of the Lord GOD are upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the LORD. (KJV)
Hosea also was commanded to name his firstborn son Jezreel, which means, I will cause the kingdom of the house of Israel to cease. Hos. 1:3-5 So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim; which conceived, and bare him a son. 4 And the LORD said unto him, Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house of Israel. 5 And it shall come to pass at that day, that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel. (KJV)
This chapter seems to fall into four groups: (1). Jer. 22:1-9, applies to the early part of the reign of Jehoiachim; (2). Jer. 22:10-12 speaks of the days immediately after the removal of Jehoahaz and his captivity in Egypt; (3). Jer. 22:13-19 applies to the events near the close of Jehoiachim's wicked reign; and (4). Jer. 22:20-30 relating to the reign of Jeconiah (Coniah, Jehoiachin).
Interpreters do not agree in their opinions regarding the dates of specific verses in the chapter; but there seems to be no doubt that all of the prophecies in this section may be applied to fatal conditions in the sinful kingdom. The terminal kings of Judah featured in this section are Josiah, Jehoahaz (Shallum), Jehoiachim (Eliakim), Jehoiachin (Coniah), and Zedekiah. Jehoiachim was actually the firstborn of Josiah; but his evil king was clearly well known in Judah, which probably accounts for the people's promoting Jehoahaz to the throne instead of his older brother. This violated the law or custom of the legitimate, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and other relatives. The son of a deceased elder brother inherits before a living younger brother by right of substitution for the deceased heir. . . . But, the strategy did not work. With the removal of Jehoahaz by the Egyptians, the last hope of Judah's having a good king perished.
Applies to the early part of the reign of Jehoiachim (Jer. 22:1-9)
Orders are given to Jeremiah, from the LORD, to go and speak before the king. In the Chapter 21we are told that Zedekiah sent messengers to the prophet, but here Jeremiah is told to go, personally, to the house of the king, and demand he listen to the word of the King of kings (Rev.19:16). Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah!
Subjects must know that where the Word of the King is, there is power over them . . . but also kings must know that where the Word of the LORD is, there is power over them. The king of Judah is here spoken to as sitting upon the throne of David, who was a man after God's own heart (1 Sam.13:14), as holding his dignity and power by the covenant made with David, therefore he must follow David’s example, that he may have the benefit of the Promises made to David.
Jer. 22:1 Thus saith the LORD; Go down to the house of the king of Judah, and speak there this word, (KJV)
Go down to the house of the king of Judah . . . go down . . . the Temple where Jeremiah had been speaking, was higher than the king's palace on Mount Zion (Jer. 36:10, 12; 2 Chr. 23:20) . . . therefore the phrase, Go down.
The king of Judah . . . maybe including each of the four successive kings, to whom it was consecutively addressed, here brought together in one picture: Shallum (Jer. 22:11); Jehoiakim (Jer. 22:13-18); Jeconiah (Jer 22:24); Zedekiah (Jer.21:1, 11-12).
*****Some think the king of Judah, mentioned here, means Jehoahaz, made king after the death of Josiah by the people, being the second son of Josiah (2 Ki.23:30). Others understand it to be Jehoiakim, whom Pharaoh-necho made king, carrying his elder brother Jehoahaz, after a short reign of three months, with him into Egypt (2 Chron.36:4).
Jer. 22:2 And say, Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy people that enter in by these gates: (KJV)
And say, Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah . . . no one is so great that he is compelled to hear the word of the LORD. Jeremiah’s mentioning him under the idea of him sitting upon the throne of David, should remind the king of God's faithfulness, and his duty to walk in the steps of David, upon whose throne he sat . . . and also of his errors, for he was not walking in David's steps, although he sat upon his throne. The Word of the LORD concerned not only the king alone, but all his people in places of authority, and also all the people of Jerusalem and Judea.
Jer. 22:3 Thus saith the LORD; Execute ye judgment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place. (KJV)
Thus saith the LORD; Execute ye judgment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor . . . the LORD wants the king to administer justice to all his subjects.
And do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow . . . are mainly named, as persons who have fewer friends, and so are most exposed to the lusts of great and greedy men, who have a power to oppress them.
Neither shed innocent blood in this place . . . the throne of David should have been a place of justice and equality to all people, never shedding the blood of innocent people, as seemed to be happening at that time.
*****Two things to consider: (1). The terms upon which God promised mercy to them that were in their power to perform. (2). The performance of qualified duties, to teach us how much lies in men's impartial performance of the duties of their dealings, and above all, how much the LORD loved justice and judgment.
Jer. 22:4 For if ye do this thing indeed, then shall there enter in by the gates of this house kings sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, and his people. (KJV)
If ye do this thing indeed . . . if you will not pretend, but always give everyone their due, and make sure that lesser authorities acting under you do so also.
Then shall there enter in by the gates of this house kings sitting upon the throne of David . . . only then shall you be saved. Upon the throne of David . . . or David on his throne (Jer.13:13; 17:25). This Promise is only of a worldly, temporal nature, of all prosperity, and continuance of the family of David, with great honor and splendor, stated by them as,
Riding in chariots and on horses . . . although the performance of moral acts of justice and mercy, which authorities may perform without any special grace of God, it may not be enough to entitle them to the hopes of spiritual and eternal good things (Jn.3:3-8, 16), even though it may entitle them to the hopes of worldly prosperity and happiness in this life (Dan.4:27); which is enough to demonstrate that men's outward mistakes and sufferings under the grievous judgments of God upon themselves, comes from their selves. They might in a great measure avoid them, by doing such acts as are in their power to do.
He, and his servants, and his people . . . the protection of the orphan, the widow and the stranger is a part of the covenant stipulation (Ex.22:21-26; 23:9; Lev.19:33-34; Deu.10:18-19; 24:17). The king was as much under obligation to fulfill the words of the Sinai Covenant as were the people. The Davidic covenant of 2 Samuel 7 was the same as the Mosaic Covenant. See Special Comments at the end of this Chapter for more on the Mosaic Covenant.
Jer. 22:5 But if ye will not hear these words, I swear by myself, saith the LORD, that this house shall become a desolation. (KJV)
But if ye will not hear these words . . . Jeremiah means for them to hearken to (listen) and obey. God wants us to hear, but also DO what we hear, obey! If the king will not execute righteous judgment, the LORD shall give him the greatest assurance imaginable . . . that this noble house of David shall become a desolation . . . Jeremiah tells us that because the LORD could swear by none greater, He swore by Himself. The end of an oath confirms a thing where there is any doubt of the truth of it, or if any have trouble about it. When sinners find themselves in a difficulty to believe God about His Word, revealing His will against the interests of their lusts, the LORD is brought in as swearing, not by a greater, for that is impossible, but by Himself, that the house of David would be made desolate.
I swear by myself, saith the LORD . . . there is NO other greater than God, and that is the reason why He swears by Himself (Heb. 6:13). And when He swears to a Promise, it shows the stability of it, the certainty that it shall happen, and that it is irreversible. It can NEVER be repented of nor revoked.
*****Jeremiah told the king that IF you will not hear, IF you will not obey, this house, the house of David, shall become a desolation, the palace of the kings of Judah would fare no better than any other houses in Jerusalem. Sin has SO often been the ruin of royal palaces, even though they were so stately and strong. This verdict from the LORD is ratified by an oath: I swear by myself . . . and God can swear by no greater (Heb.6:13) that this house shall be laid in ruins. Sin will be the ruin of the houses of princes as well as the houses of common men.
Jer. 22:6 For thus saith the LORD unto the king's house of Judah; Thou art Gilead unto me, and the head of Lebanon: yet surely I will make thee a wilderness, and cities which are not inhabited. (KJV)
Thou art Gilead unto me, and the head of Lebanon . . . or like Gilead, which was a very fruitful country, for wealth and riches of all kinds of treasured things, and like the top of Mount Lebanon, with tall cedars for splendor. Or thou shall be as Gilead, and Mount Lebanon, which belonged to the ten tribes of Israel, and are put for the whole kingdom of Israel, which was wasted by the king of Assyria. And in the same condition would the royal palace at Jerusalem be, notwithstanding all its riches and grandeur. And so the city and temple likewise; as follows:
Yet surely I will make thee a wilderness, and cities which are not inhabited . . . although as fruitful as Gilead, yet shall it become like a barren desert. And even though full of children, courtiers, princes and nobles, yet shall it be like cities that have been utterly abandoned.
*****Gilead in the verse above, is a place, not a man. It along with Lebanon, was covered with beautiful cedar trees. On close inspection, you would find that Gilead had been a place of ruins at one time. In the sense it is used here, I think it speaks of the beauty of the king's house being made of cedar. And although these places are so beautiful, God will destroy them if they remain unfaithful to Him. The country that is now fruitful as Gilead, shall be made a wilderness. The cities that are now strong as Lebanon shall be cities deserted; for when the country is laid waste, the cities will be abandoned.
Jer. 22:7 And I will prepare destroyers against thee, every one with his weapons: and they shall cut down thy choice cedars, and cast them into the fire. (KJV)
And I will prepare destroyers against thee, every one with his weapons . . . they shall not only be flanked with their own lusts and malice; but ordered and influenced by the LORD, and shall come sufficiently prepared for their work.
And they shall cut down and burn thy buildings, which are made of goodly cedars . . . this could mainly refer to the palaces and great houses built from such timber (Song 1:17). Cedar is almost an indestructible wood, but it will burn if placed in the fire. God says, even the beauty of the cedars will burn in the fire of His wrath.
Jer. 22:8 And many nations shall pass by this city, and they shall say every man to his neighbour, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this great city? (KJV)
And many nations shall pass by this city . . . after it is burned down and destroyed.
And they shall say every man to his neighbour . . . the people of many nations travelling that way, as in company together, passing along the ruined walls of the city.
Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this great city? . . . asking themselves why has the LORD done this to this great city that was so fortified and full of people.
*****This was done, according to the LORD’S threats (Deut. 29:24; 1 Ki. 9:8). Although the Jews would not understand that there was a reason, others would understand it, and ask about it.
Jer. 22:9 Then they shall answer, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD their God, and worshipped other gods, and served them. (KJV)
Then they shall answer . . . some shall answer them, or they shall talk one to another. Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD their God . . . surely it is because they have broken the Divine law, when the Israelites made a covenant (Ex.19:8; 24:3, 7; Deut.5:27), upon which reason their sin was an apostasy, and their forsaking their covenant. Their sin was that of idolatry, worshipping images and idols, which were no gods, except in the opinion of those nations that worshipped them.
Speaks of the days directly after the removal of Jehoahaz And his captivity in Egypt (Jer. 22:10-12)
Jer. 22:10 Weep ye not for the dead, neither bemoan him: but weep sore for him that goeth away: for he shall return no more, nor see his native country. (KJV)
Weep ye not for the dead, neither bemoan him . . . weep not for Josiah your dead prince, for whom there was a great mourning (2 Chr.35:26). Josiah is happy, you need not trouble yourselves for him; but weep for Jehoahaz, who is to go into captivity. Jehoahaz was set up when his father died, by the people (2 Ki.23:30; 2 Chr.36:1), but was put down within three months, and carried into Egypt, where he died (2 Ki.23:34). Some think that this prophecy was long before that in the Chapter 21, soon after the death of Josiah, upon the people's setting up of Jehoahaz in his stead, or presently after he was carried away.
Jer. 22:11 For thus saith the LORD touching Shallum the son of Josiah king of Judah, which reigned instead of Josiah his father, which went forth out of this place; He shall not return thither any more: (KJV)
For thus saith the LORD touching Shallum the son of Josiah king of Judah . . . not Shallum the fourth son of Josiah (1 Chron. 3:15); for it is not likely that he would immediately succeed his father.
Which reigned instead of Josiah his father . . . the son of Josiah king of Judah, which reigned instead of Josiah his father. The same is said of Jehoahaz (2 Chron. 36:1).
Which went forth out of this place . . . out of Jerusalem, being put down there from his throne by Pharaoh-necho, and then carried by him into Egypt (2 Chron. 36:3).
He shall not return thither any more . . . he died in Egypt, out of his own land. But was alive when this prophecy was spoken, which was in the reign of his brother Jehoiakim, as seems some following verses show.
*****Here is the doom of Shallum, who no doubt is the same with Jehoahaz, for he is that son of Josiah king of Judah who reigned in the stead of Josiah his father, which Jehoahaz did by the act of the people, who made him king though he was not the oldest son (2 Ki.23:30; 2 Chr.36:1). Among the sons of Josiah (1 Chr.3:15) there is one Shallum mentioned, and not Jehoahaz. Perhaps the people preferred him before his elder brother because they thought him a more active daring young man, and more fit to rule; but God soon showed them the folly of their injustice, and that it would not prosper, for within three months the king of Egypt came upon him, overthrew him, and carried him away prisoner into Egypt, just as the LORD had threatened (Deu.28:68). It does not seem that any of the people were taken into captivity with him.
2 Ki. 23:34 And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and turned his name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz away: and he came to Egypt, and died there. (KJV)
2 Chro. 36:4 And the king of Egypt made Eliakim his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem, and turned his name to Jehoiakim. And Necho took Jehoahaz his brother, and carried him to Egypt. (KJV)
Jer. 22:12 But he shall die in the place whither they have led him captive, and shall see this land no more. (KJV)
But he shall die in the place whither they have led him captive . . . he never returned to his native country.
And shall see this land no more . . . he shall not return. The people possibly had hopes of Shallum's return from Egypt, in which case they would replace him on the throne, and thereby free themselves from the oppressive taxes imposed by Jehoiakim (2 Ki.23:35). This shameful figure is much like Jehoiachin, who reigned only three months before being deported, never to return (2 Ki.24:8, 15).
Applies to the close of Jehoiachim's Wicked Reign (Jer. 22:13-19)
Chapter 22 contains some of the most severe judgment that is found anywhere in the Word of God. It is more severe than the judgment pronounced by God upon Cain (Gen. 4) or by the LORD Jesus upon Judas (Mat.26:24-25; Jn.17:11-12). It is dreadful, but at the same time it is one of the most remarkable prophecies in the entire Word of God.
Before we consider the judgment against Jehoiachin, there is first the judgment against his father, Jehoiakim. He was a wicked ruler also, but during his reign, there was prosperity. The rich got richer, and the poor got poorer. It is very interesting that God’s
Word has so much to say about the poor. We cannot ignore this, because God pays so much attention to the poor, both in the Old and New Testaments.
This begins God's message concerning Jehoiakim.
Jer. 22:13 Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and his chambers by wrong; that useth his neighbour's service without wages, and giveth him not for his work; (KJV)
Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness . . . built his house, his life, by wicked ways, by wrong. Not only did Jehoiakim tax the people (2 Ki. 23:35) for Pharaoh's tribute, he also took their forced labor without pay for building a magnificent palace. This he did in violation of the law (Lev.19:13; Deut.24:14-15). Other prophets spoke out about the same evil practice (Mic. 3:10; Hab. 2:9). By unrighteousness means by unfair means.
And his chambers by wrong . . . there is no need to list the sins of Jehoiachim. He forced the dethroning of his own brother, resulting in his captivity and probable death.
That useth his neighbour's service without wages, and giveth him not for his work . . .
not only did Jehoiakim tax the people for Pharaoh's honor, but also took their forced labor, without pay, to build a splendid palace; in violation of God’s Laws (Lev.19:13; Deut.24;14-15), also see (Mic.3:10; Hab.2:9; Jam.5:4). The LORD will repay in justice, those who will not in justice pay those whom they hire.
*****This respects Jehoiakim, the then reigning king. He was not happy with the palace the kings of Judah before him had lived in. He built another, or maybe enlarged it, making great and extravagant alterations in it. This he did most likely with the money wrongly gotten. Maybe this is the reason why so much notice is taken of the king's house or palace in the early part of the chapter, and why it is threatened with desolation (Jer. 22:1).
That useth his neighbour's service without wages . . . the king made these people work, but gave them no wages. They worked for nothing. This is a horrible sin in any person, and much more so in a king (Jam.5:4).
Jehoiakim did NOT follow in the footsteps of Josiah who did right in the sight of God.
2 Ki. 22:2 And he did that which was right in the sight of the LORD, and walked in all the way of David his father, and turned not aside to the right hand or to the left. (KJV)
Jehoiakim was greatly responsible for the introduction of false worship. Everything he did indicated just how unrighteous he was. Everything he built was deceitfully built. God will indeed greatly punish him.
Jer. 22:14 That saith, I will build me a wide house and large chambers, and cutteth him out windows; and it is cieled with cedar, and painted with vermilion. (KJV)
That saith, I will build me a wide house and large chambers . . . wide house means a big house. Large chambers are upper rooms in the East, and are the main apartments.
Cutteth him out windows . . . it seems that the house was full of windows. There must be something extraordinary about the windows, since they are thought worthy of notice.
And it is cieled with cedar . . . it was customary to make ceilings with beautiful interlaced patterns often painted in brilliant colors.
And painted with vermilion . . . the old vermilion was composed of sulfur and quicksilver; not of red lead, as our vermilion.
Jer. 22:15 Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar? did not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? (KJV)
Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar?. . . the LORD wants to know: do you think you shall reign because you close yourself in with cedar?
Did not thy father eat and drink . . . did not Josiah, your father, enjoy all that man really needs for his bodily wants? Did he need to build costly palaces to secure his throne? No! He secured it by judgment and justice; while you, with all your luxurious building sit on an unstable throne.
And then it was well with him? . . . Josiah was blessed by the LORD, and was prosperous and successful. Josiah was himself happy as a prince, and his too the people under him, both enjoying peace and prosperity. There are never better times than when justice is done.
*****Just because Jehoiakim had an expensive mansion made with cedar wood, did NOT make him a good king. Josiah, the father of Jehoiakim, was a good king. He ate and drank and had parties, but he was fair with all the people. Jehoiakim was not anything like his father. He thought only of himself. He was an evil king. It does not mean that God would forbid Jehoiakim to eat and drink, it just means he should have payed attention to the needs of his people. He also should have worshipped God.
Jehoiakim was very vain as to think that those fancy houses would continue his kingdom. He was sadly mistaken! Magnificent buildings do NOT establish a king’s throne. Josiah lived well, yet had no such stately palaces. His throne was rightly established by justice and judgment; and that was what Jehoiakim should have done.
Jer. 22:16 He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well with him: was not
this to know me? saith the LORD. (KJV)
He judged the cause of the poor and needy . . . the kings of Israel and Judah often sat personally to judge cases; but they also would set such judges as did it fairly, who would administer justice impartially, especially to the poor, who were the most exposed to the power of others.
Then it was well with him . . . thus Josiah did, and prospered by doing this.
Was not this to know me? saith the LORD . . . Josiah truly owned and acknowledged the LORD. Only those who truly know the LORD, and obey Him, fare well with Him . . . not those who in vain pretend godliness (hypocrites, Mat.23), and in reality are not working in their duties of justice and charity.
Jer. 22:17 But thine eyes and thine heart are not but for thy covetousness, and for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence, to do it.
But thine eyes and thine heart are not but for thy covetousness . . . all that Jehoiakim looked after, and set his heart on was his own magnificence and riches.
And for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence, to do it . . . all he wanted was to make himself great, because he had no trouble at all destroying his subjects that were innocent and did not deserve death. Jehoiakim terribly oppressed others, using any and all ways of violence against them. It is not as though Jehoiakim did all this in person, but that he did it by the corrupt and unjust judges that he set up.
So too, God accounted that Ahab had killed and taken possession of the vineyard (1 Ki. 21:19), even though the elders and nobles were those that did it (1 Ki. 21:11-13). Kings and rulers are responsible to God for the sins of their ministers and judges.
*****Jer. 22:16-17. Josiah had judged the cause of the poor and needy; but in Jehoiakim's day the rich were getting richer by wrong methods, and the poor were getting poorer . . . just like today.
God has much to say on this subject. Jeremiah called attention to the fact that the rich men were heaping up wealth by the hard work of others and treading down the poor. In their pride and arrogance they built themselves palaces and lived as though God had forgotten their wicked ways on how they acquired their wealth. The same goes for today!
Jam. 5:1-3 Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. 2 Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are motheaten. 3 Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days. (KJV) . . .
There are two things for which God condemns the rich: the way they get their money, and the way they use their money.
In today’s world, everything is one-sided for the rich man. The tax laws are geared to protect the rich. Politicians make everything in favor of the rich, those who have given to their political campaigns. That is what the rich people support. The vast majority do not care one bit about the work of the LORD; and they certainly do not give anything in order to get out the Word of God. Dear one, the LORD notices that. Believe me, He does! He notices when the rich get rich at the expense of the poor, and He notices when they spend their wealth on themselves, building extravagant homes to live in like Jehoiakim.
There are the two groups of people that are the hardest to reach with the Gospel . . . they are the very rich and they that are very poor. The fundamental social problem in America today is not a racial or a class struggle. It is a question of the rich and the poor. Communism would never have risen in the world if it were not for the struggle between the filthy rich and the very poor, and it is this unfairness that the LORD shall judge, and you can count on that!
Jer. 22:18 Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah; They shall not lament for him, saying, Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! they shall not lament for him, saying, Ah lord! or, Ah his glory! (KJV)
Very boldly, by the Holy LORD, is the judgment in detail pronounced upon Jehoiakim. Dreaded by all around him, he would soon lie an ignored corpse, with no one to mourn for him. No loving relative will mourn, as when a brother or sister is carried to the grave; neither shall he have any respect from any of his subjects.
Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! . . . this was the usual method in lamenting a death (1 Ki. 13:30)., the weeping of subjects and friends, those outside his family.
They shall not lament for him . . . the words contrast the death as well as the life of Jehoiakim with that of Josiah. For him there would be no lamentation such as was made for the righteous king (2 Chr.35:25). For the funeral ceremonies of Israel, (1 Ki.13:30; 1 Ki.14:13; Mat. 9:23; Mk. 5:38). Jehoiakim was an evil king, and no one would grieve when he was gone. He had been trouble for all who knew him.
*****Jehoiakim was the son of Josiah, king of Judah; a very bad son of a very good father, whose name was Eliakim, by Pharaoh-nechoh turned to Jehoiakim (2 Ki. 23:34), and by him set up as king. He reigned wickedly, and terribly oppressed the people for money for Pharaoh-nechoh, that made him king (2 Ki. 23:35). He reigned eleven years; but when he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon (2 Ki. 24:1-2), he was carried by him into Babylon in shackles (2 Chr.36:6), where he died. Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, his son, succeeded him (Jer.22:9), reigning only three months and ten days.
They shall not lament for Jehoiakim, he died not lamented because he had so mistreated his own people by violence and oppression, that it is not likely that any of them that were in Babylon made any great lamentation for him.
Jer. 22:19 He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem. (KJV)
He shall be buried with the burial of an ass . . . meaning that he would not be buried at all, or if buried, it would be in a contemptible manner, with none attending him to his grave, none mourning for him.
Drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem . . . these words make some think that Jehoiakim was buried near Jerusalem; but the according to Scripture, that is wrong.
2 Ki. 24:15 And he carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon, and the king's mother, and the king's wives, and his officers, and the mighty of the land, those carried he into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon. (KJV)
Jer. 22:26-27 And I will cast thee out, and thy mother that bare thee, into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die. 27 But to the land whereunto they desire to return, thither shall they not return. (KJV)
*****Some writers say that there is no confirmation of this prophecy. Personally, I say that is nonsense! No confirmation is needed. God said it would happen, and it did. There is nothing opposing it anywhere in the Bible. Consider the death of Jehoiakim.
2 Ki .24:6 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead. (KJV) . . . there is no reference to what or how it happened. Still, the Passage bears witness to the fulfillment of this prophecy, because, the complete formula for describing the death of a king of Judah was: He slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David (1 Ki.2:10 ; 11:43; 14:31; 15:24; 22:50; 2 Ki.8:24 10:35; 13:9; 14:16; 15:7; 15:38; 16:20).
There is no doubt whatsoever that omitting the usual line, He was buried with his fathers, means without question, that he was NOT buried.
It is believed that the fulfillment of this prophecy came as the Babylonian invaders approached Jerusalem.
Relates to the reign of Jeconiah (Coniah, or Jehoiachin) (Jer. 22:20-30)
Jer. 22:20 Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift up thy voice in Bashan, and cry from the passages: for all thy lovers are destroyed. (KJV)
Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift up thy voice in Bashan . . . delivered in the reign of Jehoiachin (Jeconiah or Coniah), son of Jehoiakim. He calls on Jerusalem, represented as a mourning female, to go up to the highest points visible from Jerusalem (Jer. 3:21), and lament there the tragedy of herself, orphaned of allies and of her princes, who are one after another being cast down. Bashan is north of the region beyond Jordan; the mountains of Anti-libanus are referred to (Ps.68:15).
And cry from the passages . . . that is the rivers (Jud.12:6); or else the borders of the country (1 Sam.13:23; Isa.10:29). The passes (1 Sam.14:4), one thinks is a mountainous tract beyond Jordan, opposite Jericho, and south of Bashan; this agrees with the mention of the mountains Lebanon and Bashan (Num. 27:12; 33:47).
For all thy lovers are destroyed . . . lovers, the allies of Judea, especially Egypt, now quite unable to help the Jews, being crippled by Babylon (2 Ki.24:7).
Jer. 22:21 I spake unto thee in thy prosperity; but thou saidst, I will not hear. This hath been thy manner from thy youth, that thou obeyedst not my voice. (KJV)
I spake unto thee in thy prosperity . . . their prosperity, given to them by GOD, yet they would not pay attention to their Gracious Giver (Isa. 58:11).
But thou sadist, I will not hear . . . not said in words, but by their conduct.
This hath been thy manner from thy youth . . . from the time that God brought them out of Egypt, and formed them into a people (Jer.2:2; 7:25; Isa.47:12).
*****The LORD, by His prophets, spoke to them many times, so they had not sinned unknowingly or without warning. The LORD did not surprise them with His judgments, they had been warned but they refused to listen and obey His warnings and His Laws. From the time that He brought them out of the land of Egypt, they had been a rebellious people. Their sin was not been a sin of lack of knowledge or thoughtlessness, but instead stubborn willfulness.
Jer. 22:22 The wind shall eat up all thy pastors, and thy lovers shall go into captivity: surely then shalt thou be ashamed and confounded for all thy wickedness. (KJV)
The wind shall eat up all thy pastors . . . the Chaldees, were as a parching wind that rapidly sweeps over and withers vegetation (Jer.4:11-12; Ps.103:16; Isa.40:7). Eat up their pastors . . . meaning their kings (Jer. 2:8). The pastors, whose office it is to feed the sheep, shall themselves be fed on. They who should drive the flock from place to place for pasture shall be driven into exile by the Chaldees.
And thy lovers shall go into captivity . . . the Assyrians and Egyptians, as before (Jer. 52:31).
Surely then thou shalt be ashamed and confounded for all thy wickedness . . . being disappointed of the protection from their governors at home, and of all help from their allies abroad. And will then, when it’s too late, be convinced of all their wickedness, and be ashamed of it.
*****It is almost as if God is saying, just what will it take to get you to repent? The wind shall eat up, destroy the pastors (shepherds), referring to the Chaldeans. They who should feed the sheep shall themselves be devoured. They who should drive the flock from place to place for pasture shall themselves be driven into exile
Jer. 22:23 O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars, how gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of a woman in travail! (KJV)
O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars . . . specifically Jerusalem, whose Temple, palaces and main dwellings were built of cedars from Lebanon.
How gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee . . . this is sarcasm. How graciously they will be treated by the Chaldees, when they come on them suddenly,
The pain as pangs on a woman in travail . . . (Jer. 6:24). All those fine buildings will bring no kindness for them from the Chaldees.
Jer. 22:24 As I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon my right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence; (KJV)
Coniah is Jehoiachin who was also called Jeconian. Why does God call him Coniah? It is because the ‘Je’ in Jeconiah stands for Jehovah. God is saying, do not identify Me with that man! The LORD goes on to say, if that man was the ring on My finger, I would throw him away!
Jer. 22:25 And I will give thee into the hand of them that seek thy life, and into the hand of them whose face thou fearest, even into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans. (KJV)
And I will give thee into the hand of them that seek thy life . . . into the power of the Chaldeans and Babylonians, whom they were afraid of, and rightly so, for they were cruel and bloodthirsty enemies, whom nothing would satisfy but his life.
And into the hand of them whose face thou fearest . . . being a terrible savage people, to be dreaded both because of their number and their cruelty. Quite a strange change . . . to be removed out of the Hand of God into the hand of such an enemy.
Even into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon . . . (Jer. 21:2).
And into the hand of the Chaldeans . . . who were merciless and terrible people before mentioned. And this was fulfilled a little over three months after Jeconiah or Jehoiachin began to reign, when he was just eighteen years of age (2 Ki.24:8).
This leaves no doubt whatsoever of their outcome. God has given Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and the Chaldeans, the power and authority to destroy them. This destruction will be from the king of the land down to the poorest person. It is God who has placed them in their hands to carry out His judgement.
Jer. 22:26 And I will cast thee out, and thy mother that bare thee, into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die. (KJV)
And I will cast thee out, and thy mother that bare thee . . . Jeconiah's mother was Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem . . . (2 Ki. 24:8);
Into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die. . . . (Jer 22:12), the fulfilling of this prophecy is recorded; and it is said that Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, his mother and his servants (Jer. 22:15), together with eight thousand common prisoners, along with princes and nobles.
Jer. 22:27 But to the land whereunto they desire to return, thither shall they not return. (KJV)
Jehoiachin (Jeconiah or Coniah), son of Jehoiakim and his mother shall never come back to Jerusalem; although they loved it as their native country, and may promise themselves such favors from the king of Babylon, there would no return for them.
Jer. 22:28 Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol? is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure? wherefore are they cast out, he and his seed, and are cast into a land which they know not? (KJV)
Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol? is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure . . . these were questions the people who idolized Jeconiah were asking. Was he like a broken idol; or like a vessel which was damaged, being cracked or contaminated, that it was of no use. That, whatever worship before was paid to it, has none at all now, but is hated by its supporters? He was idolized by his people when he first came to the throne. But now his power and government being broken, and he carried captive, was despised by all, as his being called Coniah, and this man show, which are used of him in a way of reproach and contempt.
Wherefore are they cast out, he and his seed . . . which were in his loins, and were begotten by him in captivity (1 Chr.3:17). And so said to be cast out with him, when he was cast out of the land of Judea. Just as Levi paid tithes in Abraham before he was born (Heb.7:9-10).
And are cast into a land which they know not? . . . where they had no friends or social contact. There is no doubt it was for his sins and transgressions, and those of his people.
Coniah was believed to be another name for Jehoiachin. It seems that he thought of himself as a god. He spent 36 years in captivity in Babylon. He was a very evil man.
Jer. 22:29 O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the LORD. (KJV)
By earth he either means the land of Judah, to which Jeremiah calls three times, to indicate the deafness of this people, and unwillingness to hear and believe what God spoke by him; or maybe he calls to the whole Earth, as he calls Heaven and Earth to witness (Deu.30:19; 32:1; Isa. 1:2; 34:1; Jer 6:19).
Jer. 22:30 Thus saith the LORD, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah. (KJV)
Thus saith the LORD, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days . . . the word childless is only 6 times in King James Version (Gen.15:2; Lev.20:20-21; 1 Sam.15:33; Jer.22:30; Lk.20:30). Interpreters translate it barren, not increasing, empty, full of sorrow, wanting children, etc. Here it seems to be interpreted by the next words,
No man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah . . .for there are seven of his sons named (1 Chr.3:17-18) . . . so that he is said to be childless, either because all his children died before their father, or (which is most likely) because he had no child that sat upon the throne, or ever had any ruler's place in Judah, but only some that lived in a common condition in captivity, amongst whom Salathiel is named (Mat.1:12), as a ancestor of Christ.
*****Jer. 22:28-30. God cries to the whole earth to be His witness: No descendant of Coniah will sit on the throne of David or rule in Judah anymore. This is one reason that Joseph could not have been the father of Jesus. Joseph was in the line of Jeconiah, and God says no child of that line will sit on the throne of David.
There will be someone on the throne of David, but He will not be a descendant in the line of Jeconiah. Jer. 36:30 Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. 31 And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them; but they hearkened not. (KJV) . . . Jehoiakim was the father of Jeconiah. God cut off that line.
The remarkable thing is that there are two recorded genealogies of Jesus Christ, and there is a reason for that. The one recorded in Matthew chapter 1 leads to Joseph. It comes from David, through Solomon and Jeconiah, to Joseph. Joseph's line gave to Jesus the legal title to the throne. But Joseph was NOT the father of Jesus. Jesus does not descend from that line.
The second genealogy is in Luke 3:23-38. This is the genealogy of Mary, and it does not come through Solomon but comes through another son of David, Nathan. There is no curse and no judgment on that line. The LORD Jesus Christ was virgin born, and He came through Mary's line. That is where He got the Blood Title to the throne of David. This has to be one of the most remarkable things that has occurred in this world!
That is why God calls the Earth to listen: O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the LORD. He wants the Earth to see that this is the way He has worked it out. God's determinations will be satisfied. He is well able to bring judgment upon whomever He wills; yet He was able to fulfill His Promise that the Coming Messiah would be a descendant of King David.
What is the Mosaic Covenant?
The Mosaic Covenant is a conditional covenant made between God and the nation of Israel at Mount Sinai (Ex.19-24). It is sometimes called the Sinai Covenant but more often referred to as the Mosaic Covenant since Moses was God’s chosen leader of Israel at that time. The pattern of the covenant is very similar to other ancient covenants of that time because it is between a Sovereign King (God) and His people or subjects (Israel). At the time of the covenant, God reminded the people that they had an obligation to be obedient to His law. Ex. 19:5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: (KJV) . . . and the people agreed to the covenant when they said, Ex.19:8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD. (KJV)
This covenant would set the nation of Israel apart from all other nations as God’s chosen people (Deu.7:6; 14:2; Isa.43:20; Dan.11:15), and was just as equally binding as the unconditional covenant that God made with Abraham because it is also a blood covenant. The Mosaic Covenant is an important covenant in both God’s redemptive history and in the history of the nation of Israel through whom God would sovereignly choose to bless the world with both His written Word and the Living Word, Jesus Christ.
The Mosaic Covenant was centered around God's giving His divine law to Moses on Mount Sinai. To understand the different covenants in the Bible and their relationship with one another, it is important to know that the Mosaic Covenant differs considerably from the Abrahamic Covenant and later Biblical covenants because it is conditional in that the blessings that God promises are directly related to Israel’s obedience to the Mosaic Law. IF Israel is obedient, then God will bless them, but IF they disobey, then God will punish them. The blessings and curses that are associated with this conditional covenant are found in Deuteronomy 28.
The other covenants found in the Bible are one-sided covenants of Promise, where God ties Himself to do what He promised, regardless of what the receivers of the Promises might do. On the other hand the Mosaic Covenant is a two-sided agreement, which clearly specifies the obligations of both parties to the covenant.
The Mosaic Covenant is especially important because in it God promises to make Israel a kingdom of priests and a holy nation (Ex.19:6). Israel was supposed to be God’s light to the dark world around them. They were to be a separate and called-out nation so that everyone around them would know that they worshiped the LORD, the Covenant-Keeping God. It is important because it is here that Israel received the Mosaic Law that was to be a schoolmaster pointing the way towards the Coming of Christ (Gal.3:24-25). The Mosaic Law would reveal to people their sin and their need for a Saviour, and it is the Mosaic Law that Christ Himself said that He did not come to abolish but to fulfill (Mat.5:17). This is important because some people get confused by thinking that keeping the Law saved people in the Old Testament, but the Bible is clear that salvation has always been by faith alone, and the Promise of salvation by faith that God had made to Abraham as part of the Abrahamic Covenant still remained in effect (Gal.3:16-18).
The sacrificial system of the Mosaic Covenant did not really take away sins (Heb.10:1-4); it simply predicted the bearing of sin by Christ, the Perfect High Priest Who was also the Perfect Sacrifice (Heb.9:11-28). Therefore, the Mosaic Covenant itself, with all its detailed laws, could NOT save people. It is not that there was any problem with the Law, for the Law is perfect and was given by a Holy God, but the Law had NO power to give people new life, and the people were not able to obey the Law perfectly (Gal.3:21).
The Mosaic Covenant is also referred to as the Old Covenant (2 Cor.3:14; Heb.8:6, 13) and was replaced by the New Covenant in Christ (Lk. 22:20; 1 Cor.11:25; 2 Cor.3:6; Heb.8:8; 8:13; 9:15; 12:24). The New Covenant in Christ is far better than the old Mosaic Covenant that it replaces because it fulfills the Promises made in Jeremiah 31:31-34, as quoted in Hebrews 8.
Book of Jeremiah
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