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Book of Hebrews
Second Peril: doubting: Heb.3:7-Heb.4:2
Theme: Christ is superior to Moses
We have already seen that Christ is far superior to the prophets, and we have just finished the section which proves Him to be far above the angels. Now we will see that He is far greater than Moses.
Christ Is Superior to Moses (Hebrews 3:1-6)
The writer is going to prove that Jesus is far superior to Moses, having already shown the superiority of Christ over the prophets who spoke for God in the Old Testament, and having shown His superiority over the wonderful angels of God . . . now he must show the Hebrews that Christ Jesus is superior to Moses, because Moses is very important to the Hebrew people.
Hebrews 3:1 Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus; (KJV)
Wherefore, holy brethren . . . this chapter begins with the word wherefore. Wherefore is like a swinging door which goes both ways. It can also be as a marker when you come in on a freeway or on a main highway. It means look both ways. The word wherefore looks back at what the writer has already said, and it looks forward to what he is about to say. Wherefore, holy brethren means brethren who were Hebrews like the author was. They are called holy brethren not because of the things they did, but because they were separated unto God. They belonged to Him.
Partakers of the heavenly calling . . . the nation Israel had an earthly calling. All the Promises of the Old Testament given to Israel had to do with this Earth. God promised them rain from heaven; He promised them fertility of the soil and bountiful crops. These are physical blessings, although He promised them spiritual blessings as well. The writer to the Hebrews will be making it very clear that they have moved into a different age. In the past the Jews offered animal sacrifices according to the Mosaic system, which was right to do. But now it is wrong because the sacrificial system had been fulfilled in Christ’s death on the cross, and they have a heavenly calling. The earthly calling has not disappeared, but it has been changed to the heavenly calling, so that they are now partakers of the heavenly calling.
Consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus . . . consider means to ponder, to pay attention, to think about. Consider carries with it the fact of faithful attention, and being totally aware of with the mind. It is a very important word, and we need to know that it means we are to give careful, serious and prolonged thought to this JESUS. Consider the Apostle . . . the Lord Jesus was an Apostle, in the very basic meaning of the word. What is an apostle? It is one who is sent. Jesus was sent from God to this Earth. Consider the Apostle because He was sent from God to this world. He is a Messenger; He is God's Messenger to mankind. He is the Revelation of God. Consider Him. He comes from God as an Apostle, but we must also Consider the Apostle and High Priest. Jesus’ priestly job will be the subject of this Book. The writer just briefly mentions it here, but when he comes back to it, that is all he will talk about, which will be in chapter 5. A high priest goes in the opposite direction of an apostle. An apostle, like a prophet, came from God to man with a message; he spoke for God to man. But, a high priest was going on the other side of the road in the opposite direction. He goes from man to God; he represents man before God.
Our High Priest. Who is He? He is Jesus! This emphasizes His humanity. We must not forget that this Man is in glory today, and He represents all of us up there. I am happy that we are told that He is an Advocate for us (1 Jn.2;1). He defends us; He represents us, He is on our side.
The Lord Jesus Christ understands how you feel today. My friend, we need to consider this . . . give serious thought to it and pay careful attention to it. We have an Apostle who came from God, and He is our High Priest who has gone back into God's Presence and is there for you and for me today.
John Wycliffe lived from 1324 to 1380. He wrote this Golden Rule of Interpretation. “It shall greatly help thee to understand Scripture if thou mark not only what is spoken or written, but of whom and to whom, with what words, at what time, where, and to what intent, under what circumstances, considering what goeth before and what followeth.”
If we apply this to the Bible, we should have no trouble understanding this Book. Here in Hebrews, "partakers of the heavenly calling" would be perfectly in vain unless we applied it to these Hebrew Christians.
Hebrews 3:2 Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. (KJV)
Who was faithful to him that appointed him . . . the Lord Jesus was faithful to Him that appointed Him. He was faithful when He came down to this Earth to represent God to man, and He is just as faithful as He represents us to God.
As also Moses was faithful in all his house . . . the Passage referred to here is Num.12:7. Whose house are we talking about here? The word house occurs seven times in the next few verses. It is very important to determine just whose house this is. Is it Moses' house? No, I don't think so, I think that it is God's house. Moses was faithful in God's house. He was called to do a certain thing, and he did it. He was found faithful.
Moses made some mistakes . . . in fact, he even recorded them. He wrote the Pentateuch. The mistakes are not in what Moses wrote because God told him what to write. The mistakes were in his actions. Moses had a temper, and one time when God told him to speak to the rock, he struck it instead (Num.20:8-12). This was sin because that ROCK pictured Christ, and Christ's work for us. Many years before this, God had instructed Moses to smite the rock (Ex.17:6), and once smitten it need not be smitten again. Christ was smitten ONCE for us; once for all, it was not necessary for Him to be smitten again. (Heb.10:10). But Moses lost his temper. I am sure that he did not know the effect of what he was doing when he hit the rock the second time. Although Moses made some mistakes, it is absolutely wonderful to see that the thing God remembers about Moses, is his faithfulness. FAITHFULNESS is that which the Lord Jesus will one day commend to His own . . . ". . . Well done, thou good and faithful servant . . . " (Mat.25:21). Regardless of who we are or what work the Lord has given us to do, we are to be FAITHFUL. God says that Moses was faithful. OH! That we will one day hear God say of us, "He was faithful"!
This verse began by saying that Christ was faithful . . . so how was Jesus superior to Moses?
Hebrews 3:3 For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. (KJV)
For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house . . . Moses was faithful in God's house, but the Lord Jesus Christ is the one who built the house. Jesus is the Creator; Moses is a creature. That is the difference. Counted worthy of more glory . . . Jesus, when God the Father exalted Him to His own right hand was much more worthy than Moses. The Hebrew Christians admitted this fact (Heb.1:13).
Hebrews 3:4 For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God. (KJV)
For every house is builded by some man . . . a house does not build itself.
But he that built all things is God . . . you cannot have a house without a builder. BUT He that built all things is God. The Lord Jesus is God, and He is the Creator. Moses never made that claim for himself. Jesus as Creator: (Jn.1:3,10; 1 Cor.8:6; Eph.3:9; Col.1:16; Heb.1:1-2,10; 3:3; Rev.3:14). Jesus IS God: . . . . . . . . . http://www.hisservants.org/is_jesus_god_h_s.htm
Hebrews 3:5 And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; (KJV)
And Moses verily was faithful in all his house as a servant . . . Moses was not only a servant to the Israelites, but he was also the Lord's servant, a servant of His choosing, sending, and approving. Moses was a servant in holy things, and served the Lord whole-heartedly and honestly, with fear, honor, respect, reverence and with cheerful obedience. The house in which he was a servant, was not his own, but belonged to God, even the Son of God, as appears from the following verse.
For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after . . . to bear witness to those truths which were to be revealed, for he was the instrument of the Divine communications to the people, by which God made His will known. Moses did not create the truths himself, but was just the mouthpiece by which God made known His Truth to His people.
Hebrews 3:6 But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end. (KJV)
But Christ as a Son over his own house . . . BUT Jesus was a whole different story! Moses was not lord and master of the house, and was not the Son of the house. Christ is the Son and Heir, the Lord and Master! He is a Son, NOT by creation, or by adoption, or by office, but by nature. And He is equal with God (Jn.10:30). And His Sonship is the foundation of His office, and He becomes the Heir of all things (Heb.1:2). Not only is Christ superior to Moses in that He is the Creator and Moses is a creature, but also the best thing that could be said of Moses is that he was a servant of God. NEVER was Moses ever called a son of God. Christ Jesus IS the Son of God. There is a BIG difference between the Son in the house and a servant in a house. So Christ is superior to Moses on two counts: Christ is the Creator and He is the Son. This is very important to see.
Whose house are we . . . believers in Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles; who, as lively stones (1 Pet.2:5), are built up a spiritual house, in whom Christ dwells by faith, and over whom He presides and reigns, as Lord and Master!
If we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end . . . IF we are TRUE sons of God and IF we are partakers of the heavenly calling, we WILL be faithful and we WILL hold fast. This is the proof that we are of God's house. 1 John 2:19 They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us. (KJV)
It seems to me that God allows the cults to exist to pull out of the world those who are not TRUE believers. The proof that you are a child of God is that you hold to the faith, and that you walk the narrow road with Jesus. This does not make you a child of God, but it does prove that you are a child of God. If you are a believer, you will hold on, NOT because you are able but because He is able to make you stand.
Jesus is superior to the prophets. He is superior to angels, and He is superior to Moses. How awesome He is! We are to consider Him . . . consider His Person, consider His performance, His work upon the cross, and consider His love for us.
My friend, if we are to consider Him in this Book, and we will need the Spirit of God to make Him real to us.
The Peril of Doubting (Hebrews 3:7-19)
Hebrews 3:7 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice, (KJV)
Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if you will hear his voice . . . quoting Psalm 95:7 For he is our God; and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. To day if ye will hear his voice, (KJV)
Here we have another wherefore which opens this section. There was a wherefore in verse 1, here and again in verse 10. It is a very important word. As I said before, it is a swinging door that swings back to the past and swings out into the future. It can also be a danger signal as you come down the highway that leads to Heaven. It acts as a warning, look both ways before you pull out. Wherefore, meaning . . . in view of what has already been said, since the word spoken by the prophets and the word spoken by angels and the word spoken by Moses was so important . . . BUT what about the importance of the Word, the Gospel spoken by Jesus? We must be very careful about doubting Him. . . . BEWARE!!!
John 12:48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day. (KJV) . . . BEWARE!!!
Hebrews 3:8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: (KJV)
Harden not you hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness . . . verses 8-11 is quoting Psalm 95. There is a natural hardness of the heart, for the heart of man is like a stone, destitute of spiritual life and activity. The Jews provoked God in the wilderness by their unbelief, murmurings, ingratitude and idolatry; and they tempted Him there by distrusting His power and His goodness. One of the places in which they murmured against Him was called Massah and Meribah (Ex.17:7), it is an aggravation of their sin, that it was in the wilderness, after they had been just brought out of bondage into liberty, and had lately had such an instance of the power and goodness of God, in bringing them through the Red Sea (Ex.15:22); and where they could have no human supplies, and therefore should have been entirely dependent on God, and trust in Him.
Hebrews 3:9 When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years. (KJV)
When your fathers tempted me . . . the writer quotes Psalm 95 to expose the glorying of the Jews in their ancestors; to discourage them from following their sinful practices; and to increase their respect to the Voice and Gospel of Christ.
Proved me, and saw my works forty years . . . My miracles in their behalf. They saw the wonders at the Red Sea, the descent on Mount Sinai, the supply of manna, etc.; and yet, even though they saw those works, they rebelled. Forty years. The whole time during which they were passing from Egypt to the Promised Land. This may mean, either that they saw his works forty years, or that they tempted him forty years.
Hebrews 3:10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways. (KJV)
Wherefore I was grieved with that generation . . . the word grieved (Eph.4:30), here means that God was offended by them or that He was outraged at them.
They do alway err in their heart . . . all sins are errors, their long trial of forty years had been sufficient to show that it was a characteristic of the people, that they were inclined to wander from God. Forty years are enough to show what their character is. They had seen His works. They had been called to obey Him; they had received His law; they knew what He wanted, and yet their conduct, during that entire time, had shown that they were not willing to obey Him.
Consider this: What about an individual? A man who has lived in sin forty years; who during all that time has rebelled against God, and disregarded all His requests and pleas; who has lived for himself alone, and not for his Maker, has really shown what his character is. Longer time is not necessary; and if God should then cut him down, and consign him to Hell, He could not be blamed for doing it. A man who during forty years will live in sin, and resist all the appeals of God, shows what is really in his heart; and NO injustice is done if then the person is summoned before God, and he swears that he shall not enter into his rest.
And they have not known my ways . . . they have been rebellious, they did not take notice of God's ways of providence towards them; nor did they approve of, and delight in His ways of worship and duty, or in His commands. They had not been acquainted with the TRUE God; nor had they not approved of His ways. Matthew 7:23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. (KJV) . . . God will try so long to get a person, or a nation, to turn from sin, and then He will let you alone in your sin. BEWARE!!!
Hebrews 3:11 So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.) (KJV)
So I sware in my wrath . . . swearing is attributed to God, to show the certainty of the thing spoken of. God swears in mercies, He swears in love, and by His holiness . . . BUT here He also swears in punishment. When He swears in wrath, in anger, in sore displeasure . . . the threatened evil is irrevocable and inevitable! BEWARE!!!
They shall not enter into my rest . . . into the land of Canaan, called God's rest, because He promised it, and gave it to the Israelites as their rest. It was also where He Himself had a place of rest; and where He gave the Messiah, the Author of peace and rest; and which was a type of Heaven, that rest from toil and labor, which remains for the people of God.
Hebrews 3:12 Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. (KJV)
Take heed, brethren . . . this advice is grounded upon the state and case of their ancestors before given, as a warning and caution to the then present Hebrews. This should teach us that all advices, cautions and rebukes should be done in love.
Lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief . . . could that be true of a believer? Yes! It could. It is very important for us to realize that God was angry with their sin of their ancestors. What was their sin? It was not murder; it was not stealing; it was not lying. It was something that most people never take into consideration, it was UNBELIEF! They did not believe God. Unbelief was their sin. http://www.hisservants.org/worst_sin_h_s.htm
In departing from the living God . . . from Christ, Who is the Son over His own house, and whose Voice is to be heard. Christ Jesus is Himself the Living God; He is life, the truth and the way (Jn.14:6). He is the Fountain and Author of life, natural, spiritual, and eternal. This is mentioned to exalt the Person of Christ Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, and to discover the wickedness of the sin of those who depart from Him and His Gospel, and who keep men from it. There is a final and total departure from Christ, from His Gospel and ordinances, and from His people, which is never found in TRUE believers, for they are as Mount Zion, which can never be removed (Pro.10:30).
Hebrews 3:13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. (KJV)
But exhort one another daily . . . encourage each other daily to prevent unbelief and apostasy.
1 Thes. 5:11 Wherefore comfort yourselves together, and edify one another, even as also ye do. (KJV)
While it is called today . . . while the Gospel dispensation continues; or while the time of life on Earth lasts. This shows that the phrase "today" in (Ps.95:7), did not mean in David's time only, it means when there will be no more need of such warnings, nor any danger of what would follow.
Lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin . . . sin is a transgression of the law. Every sin hardens the heart, and by being continually committed, a habit is formed, and a hard-heartedness is brought upon the heart and conscience, corrupting nature. Indwelling sin may be meant; a desperately wicked deceitful heart (Jer.17:9) deceives through promises of pleasure that cannot be fulfilled! Man is drawn into sin by this wicked heart, and by continual repeating it, grows hardened in it.
The writer of the Book of Hebrews, goes back to the wilderness experience of Israel, and applies it to the Hebrew believers of the first century, and also steps on the toes of those in today’s world as well. Only the Holy Spirit can apply these truths to our hearts. Do NOT quench the Spirit in your life, let Him work! (1 Thes.5:19).
Sin appears to be good, but it is vile; it appears enjoyable, but is destructive; it promises much, but can offer nothing. The deceitfulness of sin hardens the soul. To allow one sin opens the way for another and another and another. Every act of sin confirms the habit. Let us all beware of sin.
Hebrews 3:14 For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end; (KJV)
For we are made partakers of Christ . . . think about this! We are in Christ. (2 Cor.2:17; 5:17; 12:2; Eph.1:1). He belongs to us, we belong to Him!
If we hold fast the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end . . . this is the same argument the writer used in verse 6. We prove that we are members of Christ's house, that we belong to Him, "IF we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end."
The evidence of sincere piety is to be found in that which will hold up under trials, and endures in the midst of any persecution and opposition. What the writer is saying is, it is necessary to persevere IF we want to prove our true devotion. This principle is taught everywhere in the Scriptures. Persevere in what?
- Not just a profession of religion. A man can do that, but have NO piety.
- Not in zeal for party, sect or denomination. The Pharisees had that.
- Not just honesty and correctness of external matters. A person can do that in the church, as well as out of it, and yet have NO devotion, NO love for God.
We should persevere:
- In the love of God and of Christ, in conscious, ardent and firm affection to Him to whom our lives are devoted.
- In watchfulness over the heart; unity with God; the daily study of the Bible; the guard over our temper; and in the habit of prayer to God which is fitting to a Christian, and which marks the Christian character.
- In representing the public duties of religion. There is something that separates a Christian from one who is not a Christian; a religious from an unbelieving man. There is something in religion; something that serves to characterize a Christian; and unless that something is displayed, there can be no evidence of true piety.
We must learn that religion:
- It is not just a feeling.
- It is not just excitement.
- It is not just passion.
- It is not just enthusiasm or zeal.
All these can be temporary. Religion is something that lasts through life. It goes with a person everywhere, day after day. It is with him in trial and error. It forms his plans; regulates his temper; suggests his words; prompts him to action. It is with him in all his external changes, and goes with him through the dark valley of death, and accompanies him up to the Home of God, and is with him forever. It is a deep heartfelt love and commitment to Jesus!
Hebrews 3:15 While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation. (KJV)
While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation . . . this closes with a quotation from Psalm 95, which we have already seen in verses 7 & 8. The writer obviously repeats it to remind the reader that these truths are NOT just for the past only, but for us today.
This is the "rest" the writer of this Hebrew epistle is talking about, the rest of fully trusting God . . . not only for salvation but for daily living, for the help and the wisdom and the strength we need to live the Christian life. The word rest is in the Book of Hebrews ten times: (Heb.3:11,18; 4:1,3,4,5,8,9,10.11). The people of Israel wandered in the wilderness because they did NOT have faith to enter the Promised Land. As we have seen, Canaan does NOT represent Heaven; it represents the place of spiritual blessing and victory. The problem was lack of faith.
Exhort one another, and hold fast Christ and His Gospel, and have faith and confidence in them. What follows is a repetition of the reference in Hebrews 3:7-8, so as to further improve on it. It shows, that the words belong to the present times of the Gospel, and contain in them matter of great concern; and that Scripture instructions and exhortations are of never-ending use. The Word of God is here to stay! (Isa.40:8; 1 Pet.1:23).
Hebrews 3:16 For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses. (KJV)
For some, when, they had heard, did provoke . . . in the Word of God, provoke is the thought of God's being highly displeased with them because they had heard but did not believe. They did have enough faith to come out of Egypt, but that was as far as it went.
Howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses . . . this means that not all of them provoked God, but some did. This was yet another aggravation of their sin; they were just come out of Egyptian bondage; brought out of it by the Lord God, with the mighty and outstretched arm of His power; and yet they provoked Him. This was done by the hand of Moses, meaning that he was the instrument God used, and yet they provoked him. (Ps.78:17,40,58; 106:7,29,43). All did not provoke God, yet these that did not were but few (Mat.7:14). It seems only Caleb and Joshua, out of six hundred thousand did not provoke God! God will always have a few to serve Him even in the worst of times.
Hebrews 3:17 But with whom was he grieved forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness? (KJV)
But with whom was he grieved forty years? . . . see: Num.14:33-34; 32:13; Psalm 95:10 and Heb.3:9-10.
Was it not with them that had sinned . . . again, what was their sin that so grieved God? It was unbelief. Most people do not understand that doubting God's Word is a very serious sin. It is one of the worst because it leads to other sins. For these Israelites in the wilderness it led to calf worship (Ex.32:4,8,19,20,24,35), it led to an absolute denial and rejection of God, as they turned their backs on Him and even wanted to go back to Egypt (Ex.16:2-3). They decided that slavery in Egypt was better than walking by faith into the Promised Land!
Sad to say, there are many Christians who still walk after the world. They do not know what it is to REALLY trust Christ and walk in complete faith and trust in Him.
Whose carcasses fell in the wilderness? . . . with whom was God grieved for forty years? He was grieved with that multitude that He had brought out of Egypt. They had sinned, and their carcasses fell in the wilderness. Only two men, out of that enormous crowd, had faith to believe God, just Joshua and Caleb. They were the only two who made it into the Promised Land. Even Moses did not make it into the Promised Land, although his problem was not so much a lack of faith, as it was actual disobedience when he struck the rock in anger rather than speaking to it as God had commanded.
All those over 20 years old never entered into the land of Canaan. They died in the wilderness; and they did not die common and natural deaths, at least not all of them. Many of their deaths were by way of punishment; by God’s wrath. Their bones fell in the wilderness, they lay scattered and unburied, and exposed to view, as an example of divine vengeance (Num.14:29).
Dear friend, God is a God of love, YES! But as you can clearly see from this, He is certainly a God of wrath as well! And what He promises, He delivers, be it good OR bad!
Hebrews 3:18 And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that believed not? (KJV)
And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest . . . meaning the rest of Canaan; He is not speaking of Heaven. Because of the Hebrews unbelief, they would never walk in Canaan, enjoy its fruits, and find satisfaction in simply trusting God. God said that they would NOT enter into His rest, and they did not! See: Psalm 95:11 and Heb.3:11.
But to them that believed not? . . . He took an oath on that. Dear one, God does not have to take an oath, but if and when He does, look out!
Again, about whom is God talking? Those who did NOT believe. Their worship of the calf and their fornication were not the sins that kept them from God's blessing. It was the sin of unbelief. Unbelief not only robs us of God’s blessings, but it promotes further sins as well. Unbelief is a source of sin, and cause of judgment, and greatly provokes God.
Hebrews 3:19 So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief. (KJV)
So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief . . . could not enter into God's rest, in the land of Canaan, for they died by the plague before the Lord, and their carcasses fell in the wilderness, before they came to it (Num.14:12,37,45; 16:49; 25:9). The reason was, they did NOT trust God, nor His power, nor His providence. This is written by the author, to show the evil nature of unbelief, and the sad effects of it, and to discourage persons from it. And too, that we today, might take heed to encourage faith in God.
The same spirit with which Christians start out in the ways of God, should be maintained to the end. Perseverance (standing firm) in faith is the best proof of how sincere our faith is. The happiness of being partakers of Christ and His complete salvation, and the fear of God's wrath and eternal misery, SHOULD stir us up to persist in the life of obedient faith. We must beware of trusting worldly privileges, and pray to be numbered with the TRUE believers who enter into Heaven. We must be ever aware that millions shall fail because of UNBELIEF. Our obedience to God follows according to the amount of our faith. Please do not call God a “liar,” but instead BELIEVE Him and trust Him in faith! (1 Jn.5:10-13). God cannot lie. (Tit.1:2).
Book of Hebrews
ch.1 . . ch.2 . . ch.3 . . ch.4 . . ch.5 . . ch.6 . . ch.7 . . ch.8 . . ch.9 . . ch.10 . . ch. 11 . . ch.12 . . ch.13. . Special Comments