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Book of Isaiah
Isaiah Chapter 28
Chapters 28 through 33 of Isaiah forms almost one continuous prophecy concerning the destruction of Ephraim, the irreverence, sin, wickedness and folly of Judah; the danger of their association and union with Egypt, the straits that they would be reduced to by Assyria, from which the Lord God would deliver them on their turning to Him. Chapter 28 refers to the time just before the 6th year of Hezekiak's reign, the rest (chapters 29-33) not very long before his 14th year.
Isaiah begins by first showing the northern kingdom of Israel that their pride and scoffing would bring them to destruction. Not many years had passed before God used Assyria in judging the northern kingdom known as Ephraim, the capital of Israel. It is this very same judgment which occurred north of Judah’s border during Hezekiah’s reign that served as a background for chapters 29-32.
The prophet warned Israel in the north of their evils and punishment that was bound to come. Judah now is being forewarned and her judgment or reward awaits her response.
Theme: The immediate invasion of Ephraim by Assyria is a picture of the future and a warning to Jerusalem.
This chapter brings us to an entirely new division. The prophecies which were entirely future are included in chapters 24-27. Chapters 28-35 bring us prophecies which have a local and past fulfillment, and also there are those that reach forward into the future and cover the same period as in the previous section. This new section is identified by six woes, and it ends in the Great War of Armageddon in chapter 34, followed by the Millennial benefits brought to the Earth in chapter 35.
Chapter 28 is a good illustration of the combination of the near and far view, the past and future events, the local and immediate and the general and far distant prophecies. We will see that which has already been fulfilled and that which is yet to be fulfilled.
The northern kingdom of Israel, indicated here by Ephraim, was soon to go into Assyrian captivity. This was a preview of the coming future day, but it was to be a dire warning to the southern kingdom of Judah. The first part was fulfilled when Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, invaded Ephraim in 721 B.C., overthrew the northern kingdom, and took the people into captivity.
WOES IN THIS SECTION
The Northern Kingdom is addressed as Ephraim because of the dominance of that tribe over the other tribes in the kingdom during much of Israel's history. This prophecy is addressed to the city of Samaria, which Omri had built and made the capital of the Northern Kingdom (1 Kings 16:24). The city was situated on a high hill overlooking a beautiful and fruitful valley. Other glimpses of it in the prophets show us its splendor and luxury. Samaria was soon to be destroyed by the Assyrian invaders. The reference to the drunkards of Ephraim (v. 1) is similar to the charges made against Israel by other prophets, especially by Amos (Amos 6:1-14) and Hosea (Hosea 4:1-19). Those two prophets ministered directly to the Northern Kingdom. Amos's ministry was just before Isaiah's time and Hosea's ministry overlapped with Isaiah. Although Micah ministered mainly to Judah as Isaiah did, he began his work with a reference to the fall of Samaria (Micah 1:5-7). They all had to do with the woes brought down on Israel because of their sin. The word woe is found 106 times in the KJV of the Bible . . . 21 of those times in Isaiah: (Isa.3:9,11; 5:8,11;18,20,21,22; 6:5; 10:1; 17:12; 18:1; 24:16; 28:1; 29:1,15; 30:1; 31:1; 33:1; 45:9-10). Isaiah chapter 5 is called the Chapter of Woes by some, for it has six woes in its 30 verses.
THE FIRST WOE 28:1-29
The Immediate Captivity of Ephraim (28:1-4)
Isaiah 28:1 Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower, which are on the head of the fat valleys of them that are overcome with wine! (KJV)
Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim . . . Ephraim and Israel are the same terms for the ten northern tribes, also called Samaria. The picture here is of drunkards and means both physically and spiritually. They were utterly drunk as far as spiritual understanding was concerned. To be spiritually drunk is to be filled with pride. Ephraim is put for the ten tribes, who were addicts (Hos.7:5; Amos 6:6).
Whose glorious beauty is a fading flower . . . their glory and greatness shall suddenly wither and perish. There may be a reference to the crowns worn by drunkards at their wild parties and mainly by those who drank wine or strong drink, and overcame others and triumphed in it. Pride and sensuality are the corruptions condemned, and they often go together. Sensuality is sexual promiscuity and perversion, also known as lewdness (Jer:11:15; 12:27; Hos.2:10; 6:9), or debauchery which is excessive lust for sexual pleasures. Sensuality can be defined as devotion to gratifying bodily appetites. Glorious beauty could mean the number of their inhabitants, their wealth and riches, and in their products of corn and wine . . . and would be as a fading flower, meaning temporary.
Which are the head of the fat valleys of them that are overcome with wine . . . Samaria, which might well be called the head, since it was on a mountain; and the head of the kingdom, and the head of the fat valleys, because it was surrounded with many fat and rich valleys. Or, it could mean the chief or choicest (Ex.20:23; Song 4:14; Isa.9:14-15), of the fat or rich valleys; which they made the times and instruments of luxury. That are overcome . . . that are smitten, broken, overthrown, or knocked down; all which means that rightly agrees to drunks.
Isaiah 28:2 Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and strong one, which as a tempest of hail and a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth with the hand. (KJV)
Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and strong one . . . a powerful king, with a mighty army, meaning Shalmaneser king of Assyria; whom the Lord had at His beck and call, and could use at His pleasure, as His instrument, to bring down the soaring pride of Ephraim, and chastise him for his sensuality: Strong one . . . the Assyrian (Isa.10:5).
Which as a tempest of hail and a destroying storm . . . a bad hail storm that beats down herbs and plants, and branches of trees, and men and beasts: and a destroying storm which carries away all before it, blows down houses and trees, and makes terrible destruction wherever it comes.
As a flood of mighty waters overflowing . . . just as mighty flood waters whose torrent is so strong there is no stopping it: so too is this mighty and powerful king. Shall cast down to the earth with the hand . . . the pride of the people of Israel, and the king of it; shall be cast to the ground with the strong hand of the LORD (Isa.8:11). The Assyrian is chosen here as a strong one, a destroying storm, and a flood of mighty waters by the Almighty LORD to come against Israel.
Isaiah 28:3 The crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet: (KJV)
The crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet . . . not only cast down with the hand, but trampled upon with the feet; showing their utter destruction, and the contempt with which they would be used; which, with their character, is repeated, to point out their sins, the cause of it, to mean the certainty of it, and that it should be taken notice of.
*****God does NOT apologize for what He did . . . then or any time! He simply tells us, through Isaiah, that this is what He did. The prophet picks up the future of the drunkard here. A high level of progress had been developed in the northern kingdom of Israel with its comforts and outward beauty and is stated in its homes, gardens and trees. This was confirmed by the hill of Samaria where a palace was built by Omri and Ahab, the place where Ahab and Jezebel lived. WHY does the Lord always gives the wicked and the rich the best places to live here on Earth? I think there are several reasons: #1. Because unless they change their ways, it will be all they can look forward to; #2. The wicked and rich in the next world will have only sorrow and agony (Lk.16:25); #3. Because it may be a time of trial for God’s people, to see IF they stay true to the Lord.
Isaiah 28:4 And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be a fading flower, and as the hasty fruit before the summer; which when he that looketh upon it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up. (KJV)
And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be a fading flower . . . the fulfillment of the woe on Ephraim was not long in coming. Even as Isaiah spoke, Ephraim's flower was fading (vs.1). Assyria was about to conquer and destroy the Northern Kingdom. Both the Old Testament and the New Testament often warns of the evil of drunkenness (Deut.21:20; Pro.20:1; 23:20,29-35; 31:5; Ecc.10:17l Isa.5L11; 28:1,7; Nah.1:10; Mat,24:49; Lk.21:34; Rom.13:13; 1 Cor.5:11; 6:10; Gal.5:21; Eph.5:18; 1 Thes.5:7; 1 Pet.4:3). Israel’s glorious beauty was like a fading flower, here today, gone tomorrow!
And as the hasty fruit before the summer . . . which comes before the season, and before other fruits, is most acceptable; which as soon as a man sees he covets it, and plucks it off, yet doth not long enjoy it, but through greediness devours it almost as soon as he can get it into his hand. And so shall it be with Ephraim's glory, which its enemies, as soon as they see it wither, shall covet and spoil, and devour it greedily, and with delight.
***** The Bible views drunkenness NOT as a weakness or a disease as some do today, the Lord does NOT see drunkenness to be pitied but as an outright SIN to be utterly condemned. This sin was particularly serious because it was the sin of those in places of leadership who needed clear heads for governing and it is that way in this modern society of ours today! BEWARE!!!
The Far Distant Judgment (28:5-13)
Isaiah now begins to move into the future. The expression in that day refers to the Day of the Lord, or the last days, which begins with the Great Tribulation and extends on through the Millennium.
Isaiah 28:5 In that day shall the LORD of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people, (KJV)
In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory . . . in the Great Tribulation Period, will be as a glorious crown; surrounding, adorning and protecting His people . . . surrounding them with large measures of His Presence and His grace, which shall cause them to live soberly, righteously and godly. This stands in direct opposition to the crown of pride before mentioned, and refers to the time when that would be trampled underfoot, or when the ten tribes should be carried into captivity, which was in the sixth year of Hezekiah's reign, (2 Ki.18:10), at which time, and in whose reign, as well as in the reign of Josiah, this prophecy was accomplished.
And for a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people . . . God shall give them eminent glory and beauty. Unto the residue of His people . . . those that remained there, when the others were carried away captive, unto the kingdom of Judah, who shall continue in their own country, when Israel is carried into captivity.
Judah and Benjamin, remained in their own land, when others were carried captive, to whom God gave His favors, spiritual and temporal, in the times of Hezekiah and Josiah; and especially Hezekiah, who was a type of Christ, to whom this Passage may be applied, who is the glory of his people Israel.
Isaiah 28:6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn the battle to the gate. (KJV)
And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment . . . Isaiah explains how or where God would glorify and beautify them, by giving wisdom to their rulers, and courage to their soldiers; which two things give much to the strength, safety and glory of a nation. The Lord Himself would give honor and glory to the people in general, and execute judgment among His subjects, not only to the king, but to all the judges and magistrates in the land, who sat and heard causes and complaints brought before them, for which they would be qualified by the Lord.
And for strength to them that turn the battle to the gate . . . as wisdom is promised to the king and judges of the land, so too strength of body and mind, valor and courage, to the prince and his army; so that they would turn the battle, and cause their enemies to fly before them, and pursue them to the very gates of their cities, as Hezekiah did (2 Ki.18:8).
*****It is important for us to be alert to the linking of events in the prophet's day and to the references to the future latter days. In that day (vs.5) seems to indicate its complete fulfillment in the time when Christ will reign. The reference to the Lord as a glorious diadem to the remnant of His people seems to look forward to the future deliverance and blessing that shall come to Israel and all God’s people.
Isaiah 28:7 But they also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they err in vision, they stumble in judgment. (KJV)
But they also have erred through wine . . . sad to say, Judah is guilty of the same sins as Israel, and therefore they also must expect the same calamities, of which Isaiah speaks afterward.
And through strong drink are out of the way . . . they have the exact same problem: excess of wine and strong drink, whereby they fall into many errors and failures, both in sacred and civil things. The prophet charged them with ignorance, error and stupidity; all which were the companions, and in part the effects, of that sin.
The priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink . . . the Levite priest, was expressly forbidden strong drink in the time of their sacred ministrations, lest they should thereby be led into errors in their work (Lev.10:9-10), and the prophet and the teachers, who SHOULD have been examples of abstinence to the people, and to whom being sober was absolutely necessary for the right words and actions of their office.
They err in vision . . . have erred in their talk, and in their holy managements. They are swallowed up, drowned in their falsehoods and failures. They plan to swallow it, but are swallowed up by it instead. The prophets fail in their sacred employment of prophesying or teaching, which is called vision (Pro.29:18; 1 Sam.3:1), and because of that, people will be destroyed for lack of knowledge (Hos.4:6; Amos 8:11-12). This is what is happening today in our world! They err in vision . . . meaning the prophets, (the seers), who pretended to receive visions from God, and related them to the people . . . but they mistook the images in their crazy heads, intoxicated with liquor, for the visions of God; they erred in prophesying, which may be meant by vision, they delivered out false messages, like so many today.
They stumble in judgment . . . the Levite priests, because of drunkenness, made mistakes in pronouncing the sentence of the law, which was their duty (Deut.17:9-11).
Isaiah 28:8 For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness, so that there is no place clean. (KJV)
For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness . . . this means that their stomachs are so overfilled with strong drink that they vomit all over everything! This gives us a fair and impartial idea of a drunken man (or woman). Drunkenness was very common in Isaiah’s time . . . men of all ranks and degrees were infected with it, the civic rulers, the religious leaders and the people. BAD examples were set for the common people. All tables; at which the priests and prophets, and other Jews did eat and drink. They hardly ever ate one sober meal; drunkenness was their daily practice. Sad to say, the sin of drunkenness is a dominant sin today as well!
So that there is no place clean . . . no place free from vomit and filthiness, no table, or part of one. No place; no table, or no part of the table; no, not so much as the holy places, in which the priests did frequently eat their meals. God warns of drunkenness, over and over again: (Deut. 21:20. 29:19-21; 1 Sam.1:14; Ps.69:12; Pro.20:1; 21:17; 23:20,29-35; 31:4-7; Ecc.10:17; Isa.5:11-12,22; 19:14; 24:11; 28:1,3,7-8; 56:12; Jer.25:27; Hos.4:11; 7:14; Joel 1:5; 3:3; Amos 2:8,12; 6:1,6; Mic.2:11; Nah.1:10; Hab.2:15-17; Mat.24:49; Lk.12:45; 21:34; Rom.13:13; 1 Cor.5:11; 6:10; Gal.5:19-21; Eph.5:18; 1 Thes.5:7-8; 1 Pet.4:3).
*****Levite priests and prophets, were supposed to give people detailed help from God, but were unable to help because they, too, were consumed by the widespread SIN of drunkenness. This is a very sad description of the conditions of that time . . . and of today’s time as well!
Isaiah 28:9 Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts. (KJV)
Whom shall he teach knowledge? . . . if the teacher, is not capable and willing to be taught and understand the good knowledge of God . . . how can he teach others? A drunken priest or prophet was totally unfit to teach men knowledge of God when they knew what the Law stated, but refused to follow what it said.
And whom shall he make to understand doctrine? . . . those who hear the Word, or the report of the Gospel . . . will never be understood, believed and received, unless the arm of the Lord (Isa.51:9; 53:1; Jn.12:38), is revealed, or His power be applied. Prophets and pastors can speak to the ears of men, but they CANNOT give them an understanding of divine things! Only Almighty God only can do that . . . that is why we should always pray that the Holy Spirit help us, before we start to study the Word of God.
Them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts . . . meaning they were like children just weaned, who try to instruct the people, and pretend to teach these people divine things, or try to get them to understand sound doctrine. They were so stupefied because of excessive drinking. They still needed milk: (Heb.5:12-13; 1 Pet.2:2)
Isaiah 28:10 For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little: (KJV)
For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept . . . meaning that they must be dealt with as children were, when first instructed in the basics of a language, first they were given one rule, and then another, until they understood the whole of it.
Line upon line, line upon line . . . who are taught first to write one line, and then another; or where to begin one line, and when finished, where to begin another. The reference is to writing by line, NOT to a line used in building as some think.
Here a little, and there a little . . . a small lesson out of one book, and a small lesson out of another; a little learned one day, and a little more on the next, so that their minds may not be overworked. They needed to be taught as children!
Isaiah 28:11 For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people. (KJV)
For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people . . . for or therefore seems to be the punishment of their dullness. With stammering lips . . . either, #1. In way of arrogance, as mothers and nurses teach children, lisping and stammering with them. Or, #2. In way of judgment; which suits best here. And another tongue . . . by people of a strange language, whom the Lord shall bring among them, and into whose power He shall deliver them; which simply aggravates an already existing misery (Deut.28:49; Jesr.5:15; Eze.3:5). Will he speak to this people . . . seeing the people will not hear Him speaking by His prophets and ministers, in their own language, the Lord shall make them hear their enemies speaking to them in a strange and coarse language.
*****It seems that the idea here is, that since the drunkards of Judah regarded the messages of the Lord through Isaiah as suitable only for children, the Lord would teach them in a manner they would not like, and instruct them through the language of foreigners as a sign of their unbelief. The apostle Paul used this Passage speaking of the gift of tongues in the church as a sign to unbelievers (1 Cor.14:21-22). The word stammering does not mean that the language would not be real, but that the people hearing it would not understand it (Isa.28:11; 33:19). The Hebrew words are translated mockers (Ps.35:16); mock (2 Chron.30:10; Neh.4:1; Job 11:3; 21:3; Pro.1:26; 17:5; 30:17; Jer.20:7; laugh to scorn (2 Ki.19:21; Neh.2:19; Job 22:19; Ps.22:7; Isa.37:2); laugh (Job 9:23; Ps.80:6); and have in derision (Ps.2:4; 59:8). All this points to what happened in the book of Acts, especially to the 120 who were baptized in the Spirit on the day of Pentecost and spoke in other languages as the Spirit gave them utterance (Acts 21). This was in fulfillment of Isa.28:11. They became an object of mockery, laughter, scorn and ridicule, and were accused of being drunk on new wine.
Isaiah 28:12 To whom he said, This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear. (KJV)
To whom he said . . . this is either the Lord Himself, or the prophet Isaiah. It means he said to the TRUE prophets of the Lord.
This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest . . . rest is offered to the people by the prophets in God's Name. Did they embrace it? NO! They did not hearken to God's Word by the prophet, as is clear by what follows.
And this is the refreshing . . . by teaching the Word of God, the Truth about Him, the sound doctrines of the Gospel and the duties of religion. This is the only way to refresh the minds and consciences of the people that were so burdened with a sense of sin. It would be the most effective method of them continuing in ease and peace in their own land, and of preserving them from captivity, and other judgments they were threatened with (Mat.11:28).
Yet they would not hear . . . they are willfully ignorant, and stubbornly refused the only means of instruction. It is the same today. Only God’s Holy Word has the answer to our having rest and peace in this world. Please do NOT turn away from it! Only Jesus can give you peace and rest! (Jn.14:6; Acts 4:12).
Matthew 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. (KJV)
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. (KJV)
Isaiah 28:13 But the word of the LORD was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken. (KJV)
But the word of the Lord was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little . . . it seems that the idea here is that the words spoken by the prophet, who spoke God's Word . . . was repeated with scorn and contempt, echoing the prophet's words in a ridiculing way, and with a stammering and shameful tone. In reality, the Lord was despised and ridiculed by them, as He is SO often in today’s world! BEWARE!!!
That they might go and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken . . . this states the judgment of God intended and inflicted for their sin; that God's Word had been so horribly abused by them, it would be an occasion at which they might stumble and fall, and that being backward, which is by far the worst and most dangerous way of falling; and that they might be snared and taken. The people bitterly resented the prophet's warnings to them and mocked his methods. They felt that he was treating them like children (vs.9-10). But Isaiah held his ground and told the people just what the Lord had told him to say. We need an Isaiah today!
*****Teaching is a slow, patient and continual work. This is the way that all Truth is imparted, including spiritual Truth. God never conveys knowledge or wisdom it in a quick flash to a lazy inactive soul. As people fall into apostasy in any age, it becomes very hard to impart spiritual Truth to them.
Many Christians today are not content with their Christian lives. WHY? Because they are not aware of what is in the Word of God. Some think a two-week course will give them the answers to all their problems. That will NOT happen! There is NO cure-all shortcut to success in the Christian life. There is only one way to grow as a Christian, and that is the persistent study of God’s Word! The Word of the Lord was given to Israel . . . precept upon precept, line upon line, here a little and there a little. It was to be done day by day, getting into God's Word. What happened? Israel did NOT follow through. They fell backward, and they remain yet in that backslidden state. There are many Christians in the same condition today. It is not that they are weaker than the one next to them . . . it is simply that they do not spend enough time in the Word of God. I realize that to most today, that is boring! But, if you really want to grow in the Christian life, and if you truly desire to have eternal life in the next world . . . you must take that one and only narrow road to get there!
Matthew 7:13-14 Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: 14 Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it. (KJV)
John 14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me. (KJV) . . . Do NOT believe false teachers who tell you that everyone goes to Heaven. That is the devil’s lie! BEWARE!!!
The Warning to Judah (28:14-20)
Isaiah 28:14 Wherefore hear the word of the LORD, ye scornful men, that rule this people which is in Jerusalem. (KJV)
Wherefore hear the word of the Lord, ye scornful men . . . Isaiah faced hateful men who scoffed and mocked at the Holy Word of God, as in the preceding verse. They scoff and mock at the threatening of any punishment; and even joke about death and Hell. They are called upon to hear, listen and attend to the Promise of the Messiah (vs.16) . . . or rather the Word threatening them with ruin (vs.18).
That rule this people which is in Jerusalem . . . this must not be understood of the chief ruler Hezekiah, but instead of some subordinate rulers, such as Shebna (Isa.22:15-25) and others; that set a very bad example to the common people. It is no wonder that unbelief and disrespect for God prevail, when civil magistrates scoff at religion. This agrees best with the rulers of the Jewish people in the times of Christ, who mocked at Him and His ministry, and that of His apostles. Ye scornful men . . . are those which mock at sin, and at God's Words and His dire warnings. They should not think that their clever plans, nor their wicked practices would escape God's judgments, then or today or in the Great Tribulation Period, of which we see in the next verse.
Isaiah 28:15 Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves: (KJV)
Because ye have said . . . within themselves, in their hearts. Even if they did not put it in words, they believed it.
We have made a covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement . . . it seems that they actually felt safe from the warnings of God . . . they thought that they were safe from death, and hell or the grave, as if they had entered into a covenant, and that those bad things would NOT invade them. The word hell most usually means the grave; which also seems most proper in this place. They felt safe and secure from Hell, or the grave, as if a covenant had been formally entered into between them. It saddens me that so many today have these same WRONG thoughts! People then and now, keep on keeping on in their sin with absolutely no fear of God and the Hell He warns of, that shall one day come their way (Jn.3:17-19,36; Rev.20:15).
When the overflowing scourge shall pass through . . . when the judgments of God shall come upon them, and pass through as a chastisement and correction of men for their sins . . . the punishment for them will be like a mighty flood or wind spreading itself, and carrying away all before it. This will happen when the Assyrian monarch with his army shall pass through the land of Judea (vs.2), indicated by a tempest of hail, a destroying storm, a flood of mighty waters overflowing. The overflowing scourge is the judgment of God, which is called a scourge, because of its sharpness and severity; and overflowing, for its universality . . . two different symbols joined together; which is not unusual, both in Scripture and in other authors. Shall pass through . . . the land.
For we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves . . . we shall secure ourselves by trickery and concealment, by agreement with our enemies, and with their religion too if it be necessary and many crafty devices. Or by lies and falsehood, Isaiah may mean their riches and strength, to which they trusted, to which he gives these titles.
Isaiah 28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste. (KJV)
Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD . . . therefore . . . because of what was said before.
In order to show what is the true foundation of hope and trust for security from death and Hell, and to convince men of their vain and false confidence, also to comfort the people of God, meaning those that truly feared Him.
Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation . . . I lay . . . God had planned and promised it, and will, in the fullness of time (Gal.4:4) perform it. In Zion, in His church, which is commonly called Zion; and in Jerusalem, where this Stone shall be first laid, which afterwards spread further, and filled the whole earth, as it is said of it (Dan.2:35). For a Foundation, upon which God will build His church, consisting both of Jews and Gentiles (Gal.3:27-29), the Foundation of all the hopes, comfort and happiness of God’s people; the Foundation of His covenant made with His church. A Stone . . . not Hezekiah, but the Messiah, as appears: #1. From those Scriptures of the Old Testament, in which Christ is called a Stone (Ps.118:22; Isa.8:14; Dan.2:34-35,45; Zec.3:9). #2. From the New Testament, where this text is directly illustrates Christ, (Rom.9:32-33; 1 Pet.2:4). A tried Stone . . . which God had tried and approved in every way to be adequate to be a Corner-stone, and a Foundation-stone. Corner-stones in buildings were chosen with great care, and were thoroughly examined by the builder. Precious . . . giving not only strength, but beauty and glory, to the building, as corner-stones often do (Ps.144:12). Corner-stones . . . united the several parts of the building together, making Ephraim and Judah, now sadly divided, one stick (Eze.37:19,24); and Jews and Gentiles, now relentless enemies, one church and people (Eph.2:11-14). A sure Foundation, upon whom you may securely rest; one who will not fail nor deceive you.
He that believeth shall not make haste . . . he that believeth means believes this Promise, or believes in this Stone, as it is explained (1 Pet.2:6).
Isaiah 28:17 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place. (KJV)
Judgment also will I lay to the line . . . a line is a symbol taken from builders, who in building use the line and plummet make sure their work is even and level; keeping such stones that are right and rejecting those that do not; meaning that in the spiritual building, where Christ is the Foundation and Cornerstone, those that build on Him shall continue and grow spiritually into a holy temple (Rom.12:1-2; 1 Cor.3:16; 1 Pet.2:5); but those set aside this Precious Stone, and build upon wood, hay or stubble . . . meaning their own righteousness, shall be rejected by the righteous judgment of God (1 Cor.3:10-20).
And righteousness to the plummet . . . this means the same as above. Only when people live by the rule of God’s divine law, which will reveal whether their actions agree to it, and trust His righteousness, will God preserve and secure His people upon the One and Only Sure Foundation, Christ Jesus. He shall punish others, according to the strict rules of justice, as His righteous law requires.
And the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies . . . the lies they made was their refuge (vs.15), their lying prophets, their idols, their riches, their righteousness, and everything in which they placed their confidence . . . but, all shall be swept away! For all refuges are lying ones, and will deceive . . . all except Christ and His righteousness! This means the ability and suddenness of the destruction, and the completeness of it, which would be brought about by means of a bad hail storm (vs.2), which symbolizes the Assyrian, or the Roman army, since the prophecy preceding relates to the last days, the times of Christ.
And the waters shall overflow the hiding place . . . the city of Jerusalem, where they hid, and thought themselves to be safe.
*****No matter what people trust for justification (Rom.3:24-28; 5:1) . . . If it is not the righteousness of Christ (1 Cor.1:30; 2 Cor.5:21) . . . or for happiness, except the favor of God . . . that protection in which they thought would save and shelter themselves, will prove NOT near enough! Anyone who thinks that they can rest their own righteousness, deceive themselves: the bed is too short, the covering too narrow (vs.20). God will always be glorified in the fulfilling of His counsels. If those that profess to be members of God's church, yet act like Philistines and Canaanites (God’s enemies), they must expect to be dealt with as such. NO one should ever mock or ridicule the rebukes of God's Word, or the methods of His Holy judgements, for what He speaks, He carries out! BEWARE!!!
Isaiah 28:18 And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with hell shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it. (KJV)
And your covenant with death shall be disannulled . . . disannulled means to make void, or of none effect (vs.15).
And your agreement with hell shall not stand . . . which they had made with the greatest care and foresight, to secure themselves from destruction, would be found insufficient.
When the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it . . . they flattered themselves that it would not come unto them (vs.15).
Isaiah 28:19 From the time that it goeth forth it shall take you: for morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night: and it shall be a vexation only to understand the report. (KJV)
From the time that it goeth forth, it shall take you . . . as soon as it passes through, it shall take you away. As soon as it starts to overflow, it shall carry you away with it. You will not be able to resist it, nor withstand its motion, nor stop its progress. Dear one, God is omnipotent!
For morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night . . . indicating that it would come very early, before they were aware of it and prepared for it. It would be constant and nonstop, day after day, day and night, continually, until it had done its work totally, in the utter destruction of them; which was true of the Assyrian, but especially of the Roman army.
And it shall be a vexation only to understand the report . . . the fame and rumor of the enemy's coming, of his invasion of the land, of the destruction he makes everywhere, and of the progress of his nearness to Jerusalem was a great displeasure to them, producing anguish and distress of their minds, causing them to fear and tremble. This also may be meant of the report of the prophecy of the Lord, which before they would NOT believe; but now that the judgment threatened was upon them, they could not deny!
Isaiah 28:20 For the bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it: and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it. (KJV)
For the bed is shorter than that [a man] can stretch himself on it . . . when a bed is too short, a man cannot lie at his full length, and be comfortable.
And the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it . . . when the blankets are far too narrow, a man cannot cover himself so he can be warm and comfortable. These well-known expressions are interpreted by some to mean, when besieged by the Assyrian army, the inhabitants were anxious, distressed and uncomfortable. Maybe looking forward to the last days, it may be better understood of Jerusalem when besieged by the Romans, to which the Jews flocked from all parts, in such numbers, for shelter, that there was not room enough for them, at least not enough provision, and which was the cause of that great distress and miserable condition they were reduced to.
*****Have you ever gone to a hotel or a motel and found that the covers on the bed were too short? The blankets don't come up to your neck, but if you pull them up, then your feet stick out. Have you ever slept in a short bed? If so, your feet hang over the edge, or you have to sleep at an angle on the bed. God was very unhappy with these people because of their sin. Evil reports are an annoyance and terror to scorners, but he whose heart is fixed, trusting in God, is not afraid of them; whereas, when the overflowing scourge comes, then all the comforts and confidences of scorners fail them (vs.20). The things in which they thought they could rest themselves in, do NOT reach the length of their expectations . . . the bed is too short, so he is forced to cramp himself. The things that they thought would shelter them proved totally inadequate and insufficient . . . the covering is too narrow so that a man cannot wrap himself in it. Anyone that does not build upon Christ as their Foundation, but rests in a righteousness of their own, will be proven in the end, to have utterly deceived themselves! They can NEVER rest easy, nor feel safe, nor be warm . . . for the bed is too short, the covering is too narrow . . . just like our first parents' fig-leaves (Gen.3:7,21), the shame of their nakedness is always there without Christ!
The Final Judgment of God upon His People (28:25-28)
The remainder of this chapter is similar to the parable of the wheat and the tares (Mat.13:24-30). Isaiah talks about the different kinds of grain, the hard and soft grains and the different ways of threshing it.
Isaiah 28:21 For the LORD shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act. (KJV)
For the Lord shall rise up as in Mount Perazim . . . shall rise up, to act and fight against you; as the Lord is said to sit still, when he does not act (Ps.83:1). Mount Perazim is where He fought against the Philistines (2 Sam.5:20).
He shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon . . . the valley of Gibeon is where He fought against the Canaanites (Josh.10:10), and afterwards against the Philistines (1 Chron.14:16).
That he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act . . . His strange work means the execution of His judgment against Israel. It is called His strange work, because: #1. God would punish them not with ordinary punishments, but in a most dreadful, and extraordinary manner; such a judgment being called a marvellous work (Isa.29:14), or #2. That this work of bringing total and irrecoverable destruction upon Israel was contrary to the kindness of His own nature, for His usual way of dealing with His people, in whom He loved and delighted to protect, spare and bless . . . BUT . . . when He is angry with them, and punishes them, He handles them more gently than He does other persons, remembering mercy to them, as was noted (Isa.26:11; 27:7-8).
Isaiah 28:22 Now therefore be ye not mockers, lest your bands be made strong: for I have heard from the Lord GOD of hosts a consumption, even determined upon the whole earth. (KJV)
Now therefore be ye not mockers . . .for your own sakes, do not mock God's Word and His threatening to bring judgment on you, as you used to do (vs.14).
Lest your bands be made strong . . . so as not to make the judgments of God, which are often compared to bands (Ps.66:11; 73:4), more sure and unavoidable, and more severe and terrible, as bands are when they are tied faster and more strongly on a prisoner. Mocking God always makes the punishment heavier and more grievous. Scoffing and mocking the Word of God always brings upon people greater and sorer punishments (Heb.10:29). BEWARE!!!
For I have heard from the Lord GOD of hosts . . . Isaiah had had a vision from the Lord, by a spirit of prophecy, which was a secret communicated to Isaiah by the Lord! Whatever the Lord did, He usually made it known to His prophets; and it could be depended upon what they prophets said, as being what the Lord had declared (Amos 3:7).
A consumption, even determined upon the whole earth . . . the land of Judea; for this destruction seems only to regard that; and is the same with the consummation, and that determined (Dan.9:27), that should be poured upon the desolate. Which clearly intends the destruction of the Jews by the Romans, which was an affair determined by the Lord, whose counsel shall stand, and therefore it would surely come to pass. God had assured Isaiah that He will utterly root out and destroy the people of Israel; as indeed He did in Hezekiah's reign.
Isaiah 28:23 Give ye ear, and hear my voice; hearken, and hear my speech. (KJV)
Give ye ear, and hear my voice . . . this calls attention to the following illustration of farming (Ps.49:1-2). Because what Isaiah was about to say was important, and delivered in the way of a parable, it required attention, he wants them to pay attention.
Hearken, and hear my speech . . . listen to what I say, and understand it. Just as the husbandman (farmer) does different kinds of work, each in its right time and right amount, so too, God adjusts His measures to the different demands of the circumstances: mercy or judgments; punish now or later . . . this seems to be an answer to those who scoff that His judgments, being put off so long (2 Pet.3:8-10), would never come at all (Isa.5:19). God’s purpose was not to destroy His people any more than the farmer's purpose in threshing was to destroy his crop. This justifies God's strange work (vs.21) in punishing His people. See the same symbolism in: (Jer.24:6; Hos.2:23; Mat.3:12).
Isaiah 28:24 Doth the plowman plow all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground? (KJV)
Doth the ploughman plough all day to sow? . . . plowing prepares the ground for sowing . . . when the ground is all broken up, the plowing stops; for it is then time break up the clods by harrowing, sowing seed and threshing the grain after it is ripe, and reaped, and gathered. Isaiah indicates that the Lord is like a ploughman, that has different kinds of work . . . He did not always do just one and the same thing all the time.
Doth he open and break the clods of his ground? . . . after the ground is broken up, it is time to harrow to level it to make it suitable to plant. Interpreting this in a spiritual sense could be . . . the prophets forewarn that the ears of sinners may be opened to receive instruction, and it may be applied to the work of the Holy Spirit on men's hearts. The natural heart of man is like the unplanted ground, hard and pig-headed, barren and unfruitful . . . the ministry of the Word is the plow, and ministers are the ploughmen . . . but it is the Holy Spirit that convicts the mind, and pricks the heart, breaking it in pieces (Jer.4:3; 23:29; Hos.10:11-12).
Isaiah 28:25 When he hath made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal wheat and the appointed barley and the rie in their place? (KJV)
When he hath made plain the face thereof . . . made smooth and level by harrowing it, after it is ploughed.
Doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cumin . . . fitches is dill or fennel with black seed, easily beaten out, used as a condiment and medicine in the East. Cummin was used in the same way. These were common with the Jews, and which, in Christ's time, were tithed (Mat.23:23), and both these are said to be the food of man.
And cast in the principal wheat and the appointed barley and the rye in their place? . . . wheat was the main crop of all these grains. The best wheat was always chosen for seed. I remember my grandfather doing that. The appointed barley . . . that part of barley or, the choice barley, which they laid aside in a sack for seed. In their place . . . each seed was planted in a chosen and proper place, in soil suitable to them.
*****This is intended to show the wisdom of the farmer in sowing different seeds, not in the same field, which was forbidden by the law (Lev.19:19), but in ground that best suited each of the seeds. In a spiritual sense, this indicates the execution of divine judgments on men, in proportion to their sins, after they have been warned and reproved of them, and also may be applied to the sowing of the seed of the Word in the hearts of men, and illustrated by the parable of the sower (Mat.13:18-23).
Isaiah 28:26 For his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach him. (KJV)
For his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach him . . . God gives the husbandman instruction and freedom of choice how to sow his seed, at what time, and in a proper place; for this refers to what was said before.
Isaiah 28:27 For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod. (KJV)
For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument . . . a wooden sled, wagon or cart, drawn on wheels; the bottom of which was stuck with iron teeth, and the top filled with stones, to press it down with the weight of it, and was drawn by horses or oxen, back and forth over the sheaves of wheat or barley which was laid in proper order, where the grain was separated from the husk (1 Cor.9:9). http://www.godcannotlie.org/1_cor_ch9.htm
Fitches was a grain much more easily separated, and such an instrument was not used in threshing them.
Neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cumin . . . the cart wheel was not used on cummin, that being also more easily threshed, or beaten out, and therefore another method was used with these, as follows:
But the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod . . . in like manner as corn is with us threshed out with a flail; so the Lord proportions the chastisement and corrections of His people to the grace and strength that He gives them . . . He afflicts them either more gently, or more severely, as they are able to bear it (1 Cor.10:13). With some He uses His staff and rod, and with others His threshing instrument and cart wheel, for some are easier to deal with than others. This may point out the difference between the punishment of wicked men (Rev.14:11; 20:15; 21:8), and the chastisement of the saints (Heb.12:5-8).
Isaiah 28:28 Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen. (KJV)
Bread corn is bruised . . . the corn which bread is made of is bruised and ground in a mill. Corn is often used in the place of grain.
Because he will not always be threshing it . . . once gain is threshed, there was another way of bringing it to flour, so that it may be made bread . . . by grinding it in a mill. Because of this, the farmer chooses the way that he threshes it. He will not thresh it too much, nor too long, not more than what is needed to get the grain out, but he takes care that he does not bruise and break it.
Nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen . . . although he makes use of the above threshing instrument, drawn upon wheels by horses, or oxen, for the threshing out of wheat, barley or rye of which bread is made; he takes special care that it is not crushed and ruined by the wheels of the cart, or the feet of the horses or oxen, going over it too often . . . all of this may be meant the tender concern of God in afflicting His own people. He will not always chide, scold, strive and contend with them, nor will He always be angry and afflicting . . . but when He does afflict, it will be in a tender and merciful manner (Ps.103:9,13; 125:3; Isa.27:9; 57:16).
*****A farmer has to be careful about the way he harvests grains. Each grain is different. Isaiah says that this is the way God judges. Judgment is spoken of as the harvest. The individual or nation in reality, determines the outcome of the judgment which is to fall upon them. In other words, if you are hard-hearted and resist God, you are a hard grain. You will require the more sever way of threshing. God will thresh you; and, if you are hard, the judgment will be hard.
The Lord Jesus tells us:
Matthew 13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn. (KJV)
Matthew 13:41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; (KJV)
Matthew 25:31-33 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: 32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: 33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. (KJV)
Matthew 25:41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: (KJV)
Matthew 25:46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. (KJV)
How incredible this is! It is we ourselves, who determines our own judgment. If only we will listen to Him as He warns us over and over again, He will put us over where the wheat is and spare us the severity of His judgment.
Isaiah 28:29 This also cometh forth from the LORD of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working. (KJV)
This also cometh from the Lord of hosts . . . all the knowledge and wisdom the husbandman has, comes from the Lord . . . in caring for his ground, in sowing it with proper seed and in threshing it out in a correct way; because of this, the Lord Himself must be infinitely wise and all knowing (Ps.94:9-10) as He is next described:
Which is wonderful in counsel . . . in giving guidance to man, both with respect to things temporal and spiritual; and whose counsel is wise and good, and always for our best. Any time that we heed His guidance, we shall succeed (Rev.3:18-21). The Lord is also wonderful in forming wise plans and systems of operation . . . as we consider His wise plan of His works of Creation and providence was formed in His vast and infinite mind from eternity! And the wise and wonderful plan of our redemption and salvation by Christ was determined by Him. All things are wisely fixed by Him; and He does all things after the counsel of His will (Eph.1:11). And excellent in working . . . our awesome triune God is excellent in ALL that He does! The things in nature, providence and grace, are all worked out either by the Father, or the Son or the Holy Spirit! All that He has ever done or ever will do . . . have been done or are being done well and wisely; and with respect to the end, His own glory, and the good of His people.
*****Just as God promised hope through the coming Immanuel (chapters 7-12), so here He gives assurance of ultimate deliverance through the One who is the Precious Cornerstone (vs.16). There are those who deny that there is any kind of Messianic reference in this context, others rightly teach that the Lord Jesus Christ is a Stone that fits in with that. This Passage is parallel also to the prophecy of Immanuel, for it looks far ahead. Time is not a problem with God (2 Pet.3:8), and His Book is for His people, for ALL times and ALL periods.
It is so refreshing, that in the midst of warnings of doom, we can look forward to the Promised Redeemer! This is the same stone mentioned bythe psalmist when he said: Psalm 118:22 The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner. (KJV)
And it is clearly Messianic, proven by the apostle Peter: 1 Peter 2:6 Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded. (KJV)
And also the apostle Paul: Ephesians 2:20-22 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; 21 In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord: 22 In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit. (KJV)
The mocking and scornful unbelief of the rulers then and now, is disgusting. Those in places of leadership in Judah should have learned from the tragic example of Israel, arrogantly relied on their unholy treaties of alliance, totally disregarding the Promises and warnings of God.
In contrast to their refuge of lies (vs.15), God confirms that He will set up a sure foundation (vs.16; 1 Cor.3:11).
One of the wonders of Isaiah, is that he always turns our thoughts toward Christ, who is our Immanuel (7:14), our Prince of Peace (9:6), our Rock of Ages (26:4), our Chief Cornerstone (28:16). There is absolutely NO ground whatsoever, for attaching this to anyone of Isaiah's day, even if we were to make such a person a type or foreshadowing of Christ. Such awesome Passages as this prove the divine origin and unity of the Scriptures.
The Lord Jesus Christ is for the believing remnant of Israel . . . He is the precious cornerstone, as He is also for the church (Eph.2:20). But, sad to say, for unbelieving Israel, He is a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense (Isa.8:14; Rom.9:32-33). For the Gentile nations He will be the stone to smite (Daniel 2:32-35). For the TRUE believer of any dispensation, He is the shadow of a great rock in a weary land (Isa.32:2).
Isaiah 28:13 But the word of the LORD was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken. (KJV)
What is the prophet really saying here? And what is the meaning of precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little?
This sounds like meaningless chatter, but it really represents those drunken listeners of the prophet, echoing and mocking him and the Lord. The words are no doubt slurred by their drunken states, mockingly going back to their early childhood rules for memorizing the alphabet.
They mocking sneer at the prophet's preaching, saying that all it boiled down to was, it is just one rule after another. With that, they stagger and reel, and then vomit on the tables where they are drinking (vs.7-8), scoffing over the words with which the prophet has wounded them, but with no evidence of any change, which brought about the result . . . they fall backward (vs,13),
and be broken, and snared, and taken, both actually and symbolically in the Assyrian invasion that was to come.
Commentaries on Old Testament Books
Book of Isaiah . . Isaiah's Mini-Bible
Isaiah Ch.1 . . Isaiah Ch.2 . . Isaiah Ch.3 . . Isaiah Ch.4 . . Isaiah Ch.5 . . Isaiah Ch.6 . . Isaiah Ch.7 . . Isaiah Ch.8 . . Isaiah Ch.9 . . Isa.Ch.10 . . Isa.Ch.11 . . Isa.Ch12 . . Home Page
JUDGMENT ON THE NATIONS . . . . . Isaiah Ch.13 . . Isaiah Ch.14 . . Isaiah Ch.15 . . Isaiah Ch.16 . . Isaiah Ch.17 . . Isaiah Ch.18 . . Isaiah Ch.19 . . Isaiah Ch.20 . . Isaiah Ch.21 . . Isaiah Ch.22 . . Isaiah Ch.23 . . Home Page
ISAIAH’S APOCALYPSE . . . . . Isaiah Ch.24 . . Isaiah Ch.25 . . Isaiah Ch.26 . . Isaiah Ch.27 . . Home Page
ISAIAH'S SIX WOES . . . Isaiah Ch.28 . . Isaiah Ch.29 . . Isaiah Ch.30 . . Isaiah Ch.31 . . Isaiah Ch.32 . . Isaiah Ch.33 . . Isaiah Ch.34 . . Isaiah Ch.35 . . Home Page
Isaiah's Historic Part . . Isaiah Ch.36 . . Isaiah Ch.37 . . Isaiah Ch.38 . . Isaiah Ch.39 . . Home Page
Isaiah Speaks of Messiah's Incarnation. . Isaiah Ch.40 . . Isaiah Ch.41 . . Isaiah Ch.42 . . Isaiah Ch.43 . . Isaiah Ch.44 . . Isaiah Ch.45 . . Isaiah Ch.46 . . Isaiah Ch.47 . . Isaiah Ch.48 . . Home Page
Isaiah's Introduction to the Suffering Servant
Isaiah's Suffering Servant Prophecy. . . Isaiah 52:13-53:12
Isaiah's Redemption Through the Suffering Servant . . . Isaiah Ch.49 . . Isaiah Ch.50 . . Isaiah Ch.51 . . Isaiah Ch.52 . . Isaiah Ch.53 . . Isaiah Ch.54 . . Isaiah Ch.55 . . Isaiah Ch.56 . . Isaiah Ch.57 . . Home Page
Isaiah's Vision of the Dispersion . . . Isaiah Ch.58 . . Isaiah Ch59 . . Isaiah Ch.60 . . Isaiah Ch.61 . . Isaiah Ch.62 . . Isaiah Ch.63 . . Isaiah Ch.64 . . Isaiah Ch.65 . . Isaiah Ch.66 . . Home Page