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Commentary On The Book of John
The Gospel of John Chapter 18
I will do the Gospel of John Commentary similar to my other Commentaries . . . in that I will bring the verse or verses in the KJV, followed by what it is saying to me. What I write will be a personal comment, it is NOT Scripture.
Gospel of John
The Upper Room Discourse climaxed with the magnificent prayer of the Lord Jesus in John chapter 17. This division of the Gospel of John is the witness of Jesus to the world. Which includes chapters 18 to 20. In this chapter, our Lord is arrested and taken before the high priest. The apostle John presents this differently from that in the synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke). The emphasis there in those three Gospels is upon the humanity of Christ, His human nature, and His sufferings as the Saviour. In the first three Gospel records, as He approaches Jerusalem, He says He is going there to die. He mentions His death, His persecution, His abuse in the hand of the Gentiles, and then His Bodily resurrection.
In the Gospel of John, the emphasis is upon the deity of the Lord Jesus. He is the God-Man in this Gospel, and John emphasizes His glory. In His arrest, His death and His resurrection John shows us His glory. John never lets us forget this in His biography of the Lord Jesus, that He was going to return to the Father and resume His glory at the Father’s right Hand. This is in perfect harmony with the emphasis on His glory.
The Arrest In Gethsemane; Trial Before Annas (John 18:1-14)
John 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples. (KJV)
When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron . . . this brook was a small stream that flowed to the east of Jerusalem, through the valley of Jehoshaphat, and divided the city from the Mount of Olives. It was also called Kidron and Kedron. In summer it is almost dry, but here it seems it was a stream that was swollen by rain or the melting of the snow. This small stream runs along on the east of Jerusalem till it is joined by the water of the pool of Siloam, and the water that flows down on the west side of the city through the valley of Jehoshaphat, and then goes off in a south-east direction to the Dead Sea. Over this brook, David passed when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam.15:23). It is mentioned often in the Old Testament (1 Ki.15:13; 2 Chron.15:16; 30:14; 2 Ki.23:6,12).
Where was a garden into which he entered; and his disciples . . . Gethsemane was a garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives, beyond the brook Cedron. The Garden of Gethsemane was an olive orchard across the brook Cedron from Jerusalem on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. It was a secluded retreat where Jesus often went with His disciples, and where He agonized in prayer before His betrayal by Judas (Lk.22 39-44). It is possible, but not certain, that this was the property of a wealthy man in Jerusalem, maybe a friend of Jesus. This place was so accessible that Jesus felt comfortable to visit it, and yet so quiet and remote as to be a suitable place for devotion and solitude (Mat.26:36; Mk. 14:32).
John 18:2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. (KJV)
And Judas also which betrayed him, knew the place . . . John here gives the character of Judas, to set him apart from another disciple of the same name (Lk.6:16; Jn.14:22; Acts 1:13). Even though as yet Judas had not betrayed Christ, yet it was determined he should (Acts 2:23), and Christ knew it. Judas was well acquainted with the place of Christ's retreat, he knew well this garden where He often retired to. Our Lord did NOT go there this day to hide and secure Himself from Judas, but to meet him, and that Judas might have a greater chance of finding Him.
For Jesus often times resorted thither with his disciples . . . when Jesus was in Jerusalem for any of the feasts, He would go to the garden to refresh Himself and rest after He had been preaching in the temple, both for prayer and to speak privately with His apostles.
John 18:3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. (KJV)
Judas then having received a band of men . . . It says that a band of men came with Judas. A band is the tenth part of a legion and was probably be about five hundred men . . . to capture a peaceful and unarmed Man. Matthew says that a great multitude came with Judas. WHY would they come with such a multitude and with swords and clubs? They certainly were intent on capturing Him, a harmless, unarmed Man. Judas: (Mat.26:47; Mk.14:43; Lk.22:47). Luke tells us what Jesus said: Luke 22:52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves? (KJV)
And officers from the chief priests and Pharisees . . . along with this “band” were also the officers of the chief priests and Pharisees, which ended up being "a great multitude" (Mat.26:47). And not only this, Luke says: the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders of the people (Lk.22:52), to make sure that the mob did their work, and did not return without Christ.
Cometh thither with lanterns, and torches, and weapons . . . with these tools, they were going to search the corners and caverns, just in case Christ had hidden Himself. The weapons mentioned here were most likely none other than clubs, staves, or anything they could grab, which seems to be so from Mat.26:55; Mk.14:48; Lk.22:52. The “swords” mentioned by the other writers were doubtless those of the Roman soldiers, and the clubs and staves belonged to the chief priest's officers. John passes over the agony of Jesus in the garden, probably because it was so fully described by the other writers who wrote with Jesus’ humanity in mind, while John writes with Jesus’ deity in mind.
John 18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye? (KJV)
Jesus therefore knowing all things . . . since Christ Jesus IS the omniscient God, His knowledge includes ALL persons and ALL things, there is NO limitation, NO restriction! Here, His all-knowing means all things. His omniscience: (Jn.2:24; 6:6; 13:3; 16:30; 19:28).
That should come upon him . . . this absolutely amazes me! Our precious Saviour did NOT have to leave the security and sanctity of Heaven . . . but He did! WHY??? Because He loves us! He laid down His life for the likes of me! He knew the suffering that would come upon Him when He came to Earth . . . but He came! My friend, the vast majority of people do not realize just how much He suffered! Psalm 22:14-18 I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels. 15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death. 16 For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. 17 I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me. 18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture. (KJV) . . . It is very possible that the Roman whip, and the “cat of nine tails” was used to flog this harmless and innocent Man. And it is possible that He endured 39 violent lashes with this horrendous whip. God, to restrain the fury of His people, which might lead to cruelty in the punishments of criminals, forbid the Jewish magistrates to give any criminal more than forty stripes; so they might keep within the law (Deut.25:3). The Jews had made an order, that no one should receive above thirty-nine lashes. Can you imagine 39 lashes with a cat of 9 tails? That would be over 350 times one of those “tails” would come down on the Flesh of our Lord Jesus. It is NO wonder that He bones could look and stare at Jesus! His bones would be exposed. What horrendous cruelty! Jesus KNEW this would happen, but He came to Earth and suffered this unspeakable flogging, and then He was crucified! They nailed Him to a tree! They pierced His Hands and His Feet with huge spikes! WHAT held Him on that cross? Was it those nails? NO! NO! NO! It was LOVE for us! NO one else in this world can love like Jesus! See our Monthly Message: https://www.hisservantsministry.org/2013_monthly_messages.html
Went forth . . . He went willingly, on His own accord! He did NOT hide Himself in the garden, as the first Adam did (Gen.3:8). He did not stay until those that sought His life came up to Him . . . He went forth, to them! Not to run from them, but to meet them, and make Himself known unto them.
And said unto them; whom seek ye? . . . He did not ask this question out of ignorance, because He knew exactly Who they were seeking. Nor was it a plan to deceive them, and make His escape, but to show them that He was not afraid of them, and that they could NOT have taken Him, had He not made Himself known, and offered Himself to them. This makes it clear that He was willingly apprehended by them, and voluntarily suffered, bled and died for us! John 15:13-14 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. 14 Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you. (KJV)
John 18:5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them. (KJV)
They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth . . . their answer is not "thee" . . . for this mob did not know Him. They did not personally know Him, nor did they say "Christ" (Messiah), for they totally rejected and denied Him as the Messiah. Nor do they call Him that deceiver, or seditious person, as they often did, for they wanted to hide their malicious views and intentions. But, they said “Jesus of Nazareth,” a name by which He was frequently known, since He had lived in Nazareth. Jesus of Nazareth: (Mat.21:11; 26:71; Mk.1:9,24; 10:47; 14:67; 16:6; Lk.4:34; 18:37; 24:19; Jn.18;5,7; 19:19; Acts 2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 10:38; 22:8; 26:9).
Jesus saith unto them, I am he . . . owning the name they were calling Him by, revealing how willing He was to be taken by them. Shouldn’t this teach us not to be ashamed of Him, or any other name we may bear for His sake?
And Judas also which betrayed him stood with them . . . the apostle John records no more here of Judas’ part of the deception, but we have found the gap glaringly supplied by all the other Gospel writers (Mat.26:45-50; Mk.14:43-46; Lk.22:47-49).
John 18:6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground. (KJV)
As soon then as he had said unto them I am he . . . immediately upon Christ Jesus speaking the words “I am He” which were delivered with such majesty, authority and divine power . . .
They went backward, and fell to the ground . . . none of the other Gospel writers mention this extremely important circumstance, why, I do not know. Our Lord chose to give this mob proof of His infinite power, that they might know that their power could not possibly prevail against Him IF He chose to exert His might, seeing that the very breath of His Mouth bewildered, drove back and struck them down to the Earth. Thus by the blast of God they might have perished, and by the breath of His nostrils they might have been consumed (Job 4:9). He could have called legions of angels (Mat.26:53), but He did not. Power of God’s Words: (Gen.ch.1 &2; Rev.19:15-21). There was in our Lord something more than being human! He was God as well as man, and here He displayed His divine glory, majesty and power. He did NOT do this to escape from them, but to prove His deity, and an example of His awesome power at the great day; and to let them know, that He did not have to surrender Himself voluntarily and willingly to them, and although He was unarmed, they with all their men and arms, could NEVER have laid hold on Him. He could have very easily have struck them all dead, as to cause them to faint and fall to the ground.
John 18:7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth. (KJV)
Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? . . . this is after they had been risen up again and on their feet. No hurt was done to them. Christ always did good, NOT hurt, to the bodies of men. He never disabled any, or took away life or limb. What He did, He did only to show His power, NOT to do them any real damage. The same divine Person that struck them down, allowed them to rise again.
And they said, Jesus of Nazareth . . . they recovered their spirits, being hardened in hopeless malice and wickedness, boldly make this reply to Him. This instance of Jesus’ power had NO impact on any of them. They could not see Him as the Messiah, even in this instance of His incredible power, they would not own Him to be the Messiah, but they still scornfully call Him Jesus of Nazareth.
John 18:8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way: (KJV)
Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he . . . He is reprimanding them for their stupidity. He was ready to give Himself into their hands, and which He did with calmness and courage. First, He had no fear of them or what they would do, but too, as an example to His apostles, for they would one day also face persecution.
If therefore ye seek me, let these go their way . . .these are words of authority, rather than words of appeal. Jesus tells them: “I willingly give Myself up to you, but you must My apostles go.” It was certainly the supreme power of Christ that kept the soldiers and the mob from destroying the apostles present, when Peter had given them good reason, in cutting off the ear of Malchus. There were probably no other apostles with Christ than Peter, James and John, at this time (Mat.26:37; Mk.14:33). Christ was about to suffer for them, therefore it was not proper that they should suffer with Him, lest their sufferings should be thought to be a part of the price of redemption. Their suffering time was not yet come, for they had work to do. Again, Jesus shows the love of Christ to His apostles and His tender watch care over them. It too shows His power, that He could have saved Himself as well as them.
John 18:9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none. (KJV)
That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none . . . He had kept them for more than three years, and He was still looking after their welfare, even when His death was ever so near, which is true of all the elect of God who are given to Christ, and shall none of them be lost.
John 10:28-29 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. 29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. (KJV)
John 17:12 While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled. (KJV)
John 18:10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus. (KJV)
Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it . . . did Peter carry a sword all the time? Or did he wear it particularly at the feast, as the Galileans are said to do, to preserve them from thieves and wild beasts along the way? Or did James or John have one with them in the garden? Or did Peter intentionally furnish himself with one to defend his Master, taking a hint from what was said by Him (Lk.22:36).
And smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear . . . it seems that Peter meant to do more harm than he did. He no doubt aimed at his head, but missed his aim, and took off his ear.
And the servant's name was Malchus . . . all the Gospel writers tell of Peter's action, but none of them mention his name but John. Maybe because Peter was alive when the others wrote, so it was not safe to say who it was that did it, lest he should be persecuted for it. But John wrote his Gospel many years after Peter’s death, so there was no reason for concealing his name any longer. Peter's cutting off the ear of the high priest's servant; Christ's rebuking him, and touching the servant's ear, and healing it; and some discourse which passed between him, and the chief priests, captains, and elders, all agree with the account John gives.
Some character traits of Peter: he had a tendency to do things in the heat of the moment, without thinking first; it is no surprise Peter willingly left all to follow Christ. A total commitment and inner drive was part of his personality, and once submitted, became a powerful factor in his faith. Peter was one of the three apostles mentioned most often in connection with our Lord and Saviour. Peter, James and John: (Mat.17:1; 26:37; Lk.8:51; 9:28). Peter is the only one of the apostles who trusted Jesus enough to step out of the boat in the middle of a tremendous storm. When Jesus walked on the water, Peter stepped out to meet Him. We often focus on the fact he had to be rescued by the Master, but we must not forget he was the only one bold enough to do so. While his child-like faith made him want to follow Jesus, Peter's impetuous nature tended to get him in trouble. He would speak up when others hesitated, but we know from Scripture, that he spoke at times when he should have been listening. . . . Do you see yourself in Peter? I do, in many ways!
John 18:11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it? (KJV)
Then said Jesus unto Peter . . . the Lord had to speak to him, or Peter may have done more damage. Such a bold thoughtless action risked the lives of James and John and possibly all the apostles, who may have fallen into the fury and resentment of these men, had not Christ stepped in the way that He did. Luke, being a doctor, added a little more information than John. Luke 22:51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him. (KJV) . . . This no doubt helped greatly to pacify them, and put them at ease.
Put up thy sword into the sheath . . . Peter, with his quick temper, was not a proper person to bear the sword, and use it. It was a foolhardy attack and dangerous, and was not needed since Jesus was well able to defend Himself, if He thought it necessary. Without Peter's drawing his sword, just one Word from the Lord could have brought more than twelve legions of angels (Mat.26:53). Peter’s assault was contrary to the nature of Jesus’ Kingdom, which was not of this world (Jn.8:23; 18:36).
The cup which my Father hath given me . . . have you ever really considered just what the “cup” the Father had given Jesus was? It means the WRATH of God! It was the horrible punishment due to OUR sin, willingly endured by Christ in His sufferings. It is said to be given to Him by His Father, because He called Him to these sufferings, they were appointed and determined by Him. He was even commanded by His Father, to drink of this cup, and He put it into His Hands. Jesus willingly and lovingly took it as coming from His Father, this cup of trembling, of curse, not of blessing, but wrath and fury. WHY did He take it? Because it was the ONLY way we could be reconciled to God. Jesus paid the penalty for the sins of the world, because there was NO way we could do it. And unless we believe God (1 Jn. 5:10-13) and accept Christ’s work on the cross for us (Jn.3:15-16), we are God’s enemy.
Shall I not drink it? . . . this clearly shows His willingness to do it, His eager desire to do it, His delight in doing it, and His displeasure at Peter's attempt to hinder Him. He was perfectly prepared to accept in His human nature to drink the cup. Although the “cup’ held a bitter potion, He knew it was impossible, considering the decree of God, His own agreement and the salvation of His people, that it could be any other way. Again, it all boils down to Jesus’ love for us. See the following Scriptures. Propitiation: (Rom.3:25-26; Heb.2:17; 1 Jn.2:2; 4:10). Redemption: (Mat.20:28; Mk.10:45; Lk.1:68; 2:38; 24:21; Acts 20:28; Rom.3:24; 6:22; 1 Cor.1:30; 6:20; 7:23; Gal.3:13; 4:5; Eph.1:7; 4:30; Col.1:14; 1 Tim.2:6; Tit.2:14; Heb.9:11-15,22; 10:4-10; 1 Pet.1:18-19; 2 Pet.2:1; Rev.5:9; 14:3). Blood of Christ: (Ex.12:13; Zec.13:1; Mat.26:28; Mk.14:24; Lk.22:20; Jn.5:55-56; 19:34; Acts 20:28; Rom.3:25-26; 5:9; 1 Cor.10:16; 11:25; Eph.1:7; 2:13; Col.1:14,20; Heb.1:3; 9:12,14; 10:19,29; 12:24; 1 Pet.1:2,18-19; 1 Jn.1:7; 5:6; Rev.1:5; 5:9; 7:14; 19:13). Reconciliation: (Rom.5:10; 2 Cor.5:18; Eph.2:16; Heb.2:17; 1 Pet.3:18). . . . Only JESUS can save your soul!
John 18:12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, (KJV)
Then the band, and the captain, and the officers of the Jews . . . this is the combined mob that came with Judas (verse 3), to take Jesus.
They took Jesus and bound him . . .when Jesus had rebuked Peter, healed the servant's ear, and showed He was willing to surrender Himself, they “bound” Him like a common criminal, and took Him away to the Jewish high priest.
John 18:13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year. (KJV)
And led him away to Annas first . . . Annas is elsewhere mentioned with Caiaphas as a high priest also (Lk.3:2; Acts 4:6). Some say that Annas and Caiaphas seem to have had the high priesthood alternately. But since Annas’ house was first in the way, or maybe because he was a man of age, learning and experience, as these men usually were, they first take Jesus to him, to get his advice on how to proceed.
For he was father-in-law to Caiaphas . . . Annas’ daughter was married to Caiaphas.
Which was the high priest that same year . . . Jewish law provided for only one high priest. He was appointed from Aaron's line and held his position for life. But, by this time, the religious system had been utterly corrupted, and the Roman government was appointing its own religious leaders to maintain greater control over the Jews. It is possible that the Roman authorities had unseated the Jewish-appointed Annas and had replaced him with Annas's son-in-law, Caiaphas. But Annas still retained his title (Acts 4:6), and possibly also much of the power it carried. Because the strict Jews believed the high priest's position to be for life, they would have continued to call Annas their high priest. Two high priests reveals the power of Rome over the religion of Jerusalem in that day. Annas was the power behind the throne, but Caiaphas was the one Rome put out in front. Annas, although deposed, retained much of his influence, and, probably, as sagan or deputy, exercised much of the power of the high priesthood along with Caiaphas. Both Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests in David's time (2 Sam.15:35), and it seems to have become the practice to have two (2 Ki.25:18).
John 18:14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. (KJV)
Now Caiaphas was he which gave council to the Jews . . . the chief priests and Pharisees had met in council about Jesus (Jn.11:47-52). The advice he gave was . . .
That it was expedient that one man should die for the people . . . this advice was given out of ill will and malice toward Christ, and to prevent as he thought, the people of the Jews being destroyed by the Romans. Although the words made good sense, he did not understand. The people Christ was to die for was all the people of the world, not only the Jews, but Gentiles too (Jn.1:29; 1 Jn.2:2), He died for the sins of the world . . . BUT . . . unless you believe this and accept Christ, His death brings NO blessing to you. You will never see the beauty of Heaven, only the fires of Hell.
First Denial By Simon Peter (John 18:15-18)
John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. (KJV)
And Simon Peter followed Jesus . . . it is certain, that Peter first fled with the rest, and forsook Him, as they all did (Ps.31:11; Mk.14:50), but He remembering his resolution to follow Him (Jn.13:36-37), he really wanted to know what would happen to Jesus. Other writers say he followed Jesus afar off, at a distance, (Mat.26:58; Mk.14:54; Lk.22:54). This revealed some fear, and yet to follow Him at all showed great love and dedication. To follow Christ is owned by His sheep, and is highly commendable, especially to follow Him in sufferings. A greater character excellence a person cannot have, than to be a follower of Jesus.
And so did another disciple, and that disciple was known unto the high priest . . . this is thought to be the apostle John, because he often speaks of himself without giving his name (Jn.13:23; 19:26; 21:7,20), and these two, Peter and John, were usually together. And for certain, John was present at the cross at the time of Christ's crucifixion (Jn.19:26-27). As for him who is supposed to be known to the high priest, some say that John sold fish to the high priest when he was a fisherman. This “disciple” could have been one of the other disciples, not of the twelve, but others who followed Jesus. But, whoever it was, through his knowledge of the high priest, he . . .
Went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest . . . not Annas, but Caiaphas, because Christ was now brought from Annas's house to Caiaphas's, where the Scribes and elders were assembled together.
John 18:16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter. (KJV)
But Peter stood at the door without . . . too afraid? Too difficult to get in? We do not know. He waited outside to see if he could hear or see anything, or for a proper chance to go in. His curiosity had brought him this far, and he hoped for an opportunity of getting closer.
Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest . . . the “other” person must have seen Peter through the window, by the light of the moon, for it was full moon; and knowing him, figured he had a mind to come in, and hear and see what he could, steps out . . .
And spake unto her that kept the door . . . this most likely was the job of menservants, but the men were busy apprehending and guarding Jesus, so the maid might have had to take this post. Some say she was the doorkeeper's daughter; her father might be the porter, and he being busy, she took his place. It really does not matter who she was.
John 18:17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not. (KJV)
Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter . . . Mark says she was one of the maids of the high priest (Mk.14:66).
Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? . . . Luke says she was more bold with Peter (Lk.22:56). She speaks of Christ in the offensive dialect of the Jews, calling Jesus "this man," not only regarding Him a mere Man, but a worthless Man, knowing He had disciples, and challenges Peter as one of them. She did this so unexpectedly that she caught Peter off guard. He did not expect such a bold and straight forward question. Without any further thought, he rashly and carelessly said . . . "I am not"
He saith I am not . . . he did not deny that Christ was God or the Son of God, he did not deny that He was come in the flesh, he did not deny that He was the Messiah and Saviour of the world, sinners . . . BUT . . . he DID deny that he was one of Jesus’ disciples, which was a huge untruth, the first of the lies of his fall, which came to pass very quickly. The courage he had before, in front of a band of soldiers, to draw his sword, and smite one of the high priest's servants, was gone . . . now he did not have enough boldness to own His beloved Master before a maid servant!
John 18:18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself. (KJV)
And the servants and officers stood there . . . Luke 22:55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. (KJV) . . . In the middle of the hall, they made a fire to keep warm.
Who had made a fire of coals, for it was cold . . . even though it was the Passover and harvest near, at Jerusalem at this time of the year, that although the days were at times as hot as mid-summer, yet such great dews fell, that it made it very cold, especially at night.
And they warmed themselves, and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself . . . poor Peter was cold, both inwardly and outwardly, and he gets himself into bad company. A very dangerous thing to do . . . warm one's self by the fire of his Master's enemies.
Trial Before High Priest (John 18:19-24)
John 18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. (KJV)
The high priest then asked Jesus . . . Jesus is now before Caiaphas, who was the high priest and mouth of the Sanhedrim. What he did was ask questions of Him, instead of bringing a charge against Him, and calling for witnesses to support it. This Person he interrogated was a greater High Priest than himself. He was that prophet that Moses spoke of (Deut.18:18), to whom the Jews were to hearken, and was none other than the Son of God, and King of Israel! Our Lord, when about twelve years old, asked the doctors questions, and answered theirs, to their great astonishment (Lk.2:46). Caiaphas first asks questions . . .
Of his disciples . . . to determine their number and power. They wanted to charge Him with sedition, or of rebellion against Caesar. To make this believable, it was necessary to show that He had made so many disciples as to form a strong and dangerous faction, but, as they had no direct proof of that, the high-priest improperly attempted to draw the Saviour into a confession.
Of his doctrine . . . not for information and instruction, not to see if it was according to the Scriptures . . . but to see if it was a new doctrine, and his own, and whether it leaned to idolatry or blasphemy, and whether it was rebellious and seditious, that they might have something to accuse Him of. Even though they had captured Him, they did not know what to accuse Him of. All this was at night, which was contrary to the law of the Jews. The Talmud says, "Criminal processes can neither commence nor terminate, but during the course of the day" (Sanhedrin c, iv, s. 1). If a person was condemned the sentence could not be until the next day. No judgment could be executed either on the eve of the Sabbath, or the eve of any festival. ALL these laws were broken in the trial of Christ which was in the night, on the eve of the Passover, and on the eve of the special Sabbath of the feast. It had been foretold that justice and judgment would be taken away during His trial (Isa.53:8; Acts 8:33).
John 18:20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. (KJV)
Jesus answered him . . . not to the questions concerning His disciples, not because they had all now forsaken Him, and one was denying Him, not because He would not betray them, not because He would suffer alone . . . but because if His doctrine was good; it could NOT be blameworthy to have disciples, and to teach them. The charge of sedition, blasphemy, and idolatry that they wanted to attach to Him, would be groundless by the doctrine He preached. He does not answer directly as to what He taught, but states the manner in which He delivered it, and anyone that heard Him could not be strangers to it.
I spake openly to the world . . . clearly and boldly, NOT in secret! Not just to a few persons, to His own apostles and disciples, but to ALL the people of the Jews, who crowded in great numbers (multitudes) to hear Him (Mat.4:25; 8:1; 12:15; 19:2; 20:29; Mk.3:7; Jn.6:2).
I ever taught in the synagogue . . . IF His doctrine had tended to excite sedition and tumult, IF He had aimed to overthrow the government, He would have trained His friends in secret, He would have kept out of public view, and have laid His plans privately. Instead, He had proclaimed His doctrines to all. He had done it in every place of public gathering; in the synagogue and in the temple, in the places of public worship in all parts of the nation, where the Jews met to pray and read and hear the word.
And in the temple . . . at Jerusalem, whenever He was in that city.
Whither the Jews always resort . . . Always resort, constantly assemble. The Jews were required to assemble there three times in a year, and great multitudes were there constantly, for prayer, and to offer sacrifice, and especially at the three grand festivals of the year, the Passover, Pentecost and feast of tabernacles, when all the males from all around came before the Lord.
And in secret have I said nothing . . . the Lord Jesus not only taught in the places here mentioned, but also on mountains, in deserts, by the sea shore and in private houses, and generally to great multitudes, although He did sometimes speak alone, and in secret with His apostles (Jn.14-16), but what He taught them was either an explanation of what He had said in public, or was perfectly agreeable to it. He spoke openly: (Lk.4:15; Jn.7:14,26,28; 8:2). Said nothing in secret: (Acts 26:26).
John 18:21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said. (KJV)
Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I said unto them . . . Jesus told them that it was NO secret action. He spoke publicly. Ask them that heard me speak; they know what doctrine I preached, and can accuse me if I delivered any false doctrine. His doctrine was absolutely free from sedition and blasphemy. He was innocent in the all of His behavior and conduct. He is not afraid to have His case issued and determined by what His hearers would say of Him . . . and these not His friends, but His enemies (Isa.50:8).
Behold, they, know what I have said . . . possibly pointing at some persons present, perhaps the very officers who had been sent to take Him before, but returned without Him, declaring that never man spake like Him (Jn.7:46).
John 18:22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? (KJV)
And when he had thus spoken . . . what was so right, reasonable and Truth, in such an appropriate manner, and without rage or passion.
One of the officers which stood by . . . may be one of those who had been sent to Him and had heard Him speak, whom Jesus might look sadly at, or point to, when He said the above words, at which he might be provoked . . . hit Him.
Stroke Jesus with the palm of his hand . . . some say he gave him a rap with a rod, or smote him with a staff . . . he hit Jesus in some way, possibly "upon his cheek" gave Him what is commonly called, a slap on the face. It was a very disrespectful and rude to say the least.
Saying, answerest thou the high priest so? . . . the blow, the words . . . were out of flattery to the high priest, or to clear himself from being in favor of Christ. There are some who think this might have been Malchus, whose ear Christ had healed. IF this were so, he was guilty of great ingratitude.
John 18:23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me? (KJV)
Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me? . . . the high priest nor any of the Sanhedrim paid any attention to Jesus being hit, even though the action was so insolent and offensive, both as to the manner in which it was done, and the person, an officer, by whom it was done. And it was done in the palace of the high priest, in his presence, and before a council, and while trying a case. It was a barbarous as well as a wicked action, considering the Person to Whom it was done. A Christian is bound to bear injuries and injustices without revengeful retaliation . . . BUT he is privileged, by the example of the Lord, to call to question such mistreatment. This does not break the law in Mat.5:39. If an accused person is on trial, he is under the protection of the court, and has a right to demand that all legal measures be taken to secure his rights. On this right Jesus insisted, showing that, although He had no intention to take revenge, yet He claimed that, when indicted, strict justice should be done.
John 18:24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest. (KJV)
Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest . . . John omits the trial before Caiaphas. It can be found in Matthew 26:57-68.
Second Denial By Simon Peter (John 18:25-27)
John 18:25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. (KJV)
And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself . . . repeating verse 18, to connect the history and carry on the thread of the account of Peter's denial of Christ, which is interrupted by John inserting the examination of Christ before the high priest, which was made at the same time. Peter stood among the servants and officers of the high priest, warming himself by a fire they had made, proving to be a bad choice. A TRUE Christian should avoid the company and conversation of wicked men, for NO good can ever come from it. Continuing among such people can be very dangerous to a person’s soul, for these people think only of their bodies, not their eternal soul. The devil baits his trap well, tempting the flesh with pleasure and passion. 1 John 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. (KJV)
They said therefore unto him . . . the servants and officers, among whom Peter stood warming himself, who had heard what the maid had said to him . . .
Art thou not also one of his disciples? . . . she suspected that Peter was a disciple, even though he had denied it. This second charge was made by "another maid” (Mat.26:71; Mk.14:69). Luke 22:58-59 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. 59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean. (KJV) . . . It is quite possible that he was accused by more than one, and this confirms the truth of the account.
But he denied it, and said, I am not . . . a second time (verse 17). Peter’s denial of his being a disciple of Christ, as before, did not come from a sense of his unworthiness to be one; nor from shyness and doubt of a right to such a character, it came from the fear of men. Mat.10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. (KJV) . . . And it came from being ashamed of Christ in that time of fear. Luke 9:26 For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels. (KJV) . . . Of this sin, Peter was forgiven, by the Lord Jesus!
Peter had denied that which was his greatest mercy, privilege and glory. . Mat. 26:72 And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. (KJV) . . . This was the second denial of Peter.
John 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him? (KJV)
One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman, whose ear Peter cut off . . . this servant was a close relative of Malchus, to whom Peter had done this injury. He was present at the time, and hearing him so easily deny that he was a disciple of Jesus, when he had a good reason to believe that he was.
Saith unto him, did not I see thee in the garden with him? . . . it seems that he should have said: “I saw you with with Jesus, this very night in the garden, beyond Kidron. How can you deny it? How can you stand there and say that you art not one of His disciples?”
John 18:27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew. (KJV)
Peter then denied again . . . again Peter denies Jesus, and according to other writers, with cursing and swearing (Mat.26:74), for now he was really more afraid than before, fearing that they would take him and prove that he was the person that cut off Malchus's ear, and he be sentenced to a fine, or possibly some capital punishment. Fear makes a person do bad things! We need faith, not fear!
And immediately the cock crew . . . the second time; which was a signal by which he might remember what Christ had said to him . . . that before the cock crowed twice, he would deny Him thrice. It was now early in the morning, possibly about three o'clock. Peter’s third lie and denial of Jesus (Mat.26:69-75; Mk.14:66-72). Mark 14:68 But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew. (KJV) Mark 14:72 And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept. (KJV)
The other Gospels tell how Peter went out and wept bitterly. Mark 14:72 And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept. (KJV) Luke 22:62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly. (KJV) . . . I really feel for Peter! What would I have done? I do NOT know! I know what I would like to think I would have done, but very possibly my faith, like Peter’s would have failed me.
Do you think it might be possible that Peter saw the battered Face of our dear Lord Jesus, all bloody and beaten, and that Jesus may have caught Peter’s eye? IF that were so, that would make him so disgusted and ashamed of himself, that he would have went out and cried like a baby. Pete denied his Lord. But the Lord Jesus was on His way to die for him and had already told him that He had prayed so that Peter's faith would not fail again.
Simon Peter did a dastardly deed, but he made his way back to the Lord! Why? Because he was a child of God, and it broke his heart to know what he had done. A child of God may some times get far away from God, but my friend . . . God is NEVER far from him. He is always there and He is always available 24-7! The Lord appeared personally to Peter after His resurrection, and He elected Peter to preach the first sermon on the day of Pentecost. There has never again been a sermon like that! Thank God for a Saviour and a Lord like Jesus, for He will always take you back, once you belong to Him! http://www.hisservants.org/once_saved,_always_saved_h_s.htm
Trial Before Pilate (John 18:28-40)
John 18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. (KJV)
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment . . . after Peter had denied the Lord, the officer had hit Jesus, the high priest had examined Him, and they thought they had enough out of His own mouth to condemn Him . . . “they” the chief priests, elders, Scribes and the whole multitude, led Him bound, from Caiaphas's house, to the place where the Roman governor, who was now Pontius Pilate, used to hear and try causes in. The Romans now had matters concerning Christ in their hands.
And it was early . . . morning had finally come. They had been all night in examining Jesus, and consulting what to do with Him. As soon as they thought the governor would be awake, they take Jesus to him, thirsting for His Blood, fearful that He might be rescued out of their hands.
And they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled . . . meaning the Jews, just the band of Roman soldiers went in . . . the reason of this . . . because it was the house of a Gentile, and with the Jews, the houses of Gentiles (or idolaters), are unclean.
That they might eat the Passover . . . pure and undefiled. This defilement, produced by contact with a Gentile, the Jews considered as equal to that of the contact of a dead body (Lev.22:4-6; Num.5:2), and as disqualifying them to partake of the Passover. This was not the Passover lamb, for that they had eaten the night before; but the "Chagigah", or feast on the fifteenth day of the month (Mat.26:2,17). The word translated Passover properly means the paschal lamb which was slain and eaten to observe this feast. This rite Christ Jesus had observed with His disciples the day before this. The very day of keeping the ordinance was specified in the law of Moses, and it is not probable that the Saviour departed from the commandment. All the circumstances lead us to suppose that He observed it at the usual time and manner (Mat.26:17-19). Some Christian writers, both ancient and modern, have concluded from this, that Christ did not keep His last Passover, at the same time the Jews did. But I feel He most certainly did keep it.
John 18:29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man? (KJV)
Pilate then went out unto them . . . since the Romans had established with the Jews the free use of all their rites and ceremonies, the governor could not do less than comply with them in this matter. He went out to them, that they might not have to come into the hall, and run the risk of being defiled.
And said, what accusation bring ye against this man? . . . what offence has He committed? What crime had they to charge him with? What did they accuse him of? And where was their proof to support their charge? Pilate wants the matter stated, the case opened, and evidence given. He wants the accused Face to face with the accusers, that He might answer for Himself; and he, as a judge, would then be able to judge between them. All this was very commendable in him, and agreed to the Roman laws, and had an appearance of equity, justice and impartiality.
John 18:30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee. (KJV)
They answered and said unto him . . . the Jews were really offended at the question put to them, and were filled with resentment that they are so cross-examined, and with an air of arrogance and disrespect, they reply to him . . .
If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee . . . insinuating that Jesus was guilty of some very wicked action; not just a breach of some of their laws peculiar to them, for then they would have tried and judged Him according to them, and not have brought Him before him. What it all boiled down to was, they did not want to make Pilate the judge, they wanted him to be executor of the sentence which they had already illegally passed.
John 18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death: (KJV)
Then said Pilate unto them . . . either sarcastically, knowing that it was not in their power to judge capital causes; or seriously, and with some resentment, hating the method of procedure they wanted him to go into, to condemn a man without knowing his crime, and without having evidence of it.
Take ye him, and judge him according to your law . . . yet another sin of the Jews. They had the power to stone anyone breaking their law (Jn.8:1-11,59; 10:31; Acts 7:59), but NOT to crucify, and Jesus HAD to die by crucifixion to fulfill prophecy (Num.21:7-9; Ps.22:16; Mt.20:19; 26:2,54; Jn.3:14; 8:28; 12:32-34). They were determined to have the responsibility of the Lord's death upon Pilate. The Jews did not crucify and had no power to do so with criminals that were accused of crimes against the state, so they tried to scare Pilate by accusing him of not being a friend of Caesar if he let Christ go (Jn.19:7,12).
The Jews therefore said unto him, it is not lawful for us to put any man to death . . . implying that Jesus was guilty of a crime which deserved death, and which they could not inflict. They desperately wanted Jesus dead but they wanted Pilate to do it. Such hatred!
John 18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die. (KJV)
That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled . . . that He should be delivered by the Jews to the Gentiles, to crucify Him; and that He should be lifted up from the Earth, and as the serpent upon the pole. John 12:32-33 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. 33 This he said, signifying what death he should die. (KJV)
Which he spake, signifying what death he should die . . . which was brought about by the providence of God conducting this whole affair (Acts 2:23); and was willingly submitted to by Christ, in great love to His people, to redeem them from the curse of the law, being hereby made a curse for them (Gal.3:13). Also see: (Mat.20:19; Jn.3:14-15; 12:32-33).
John 18:33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? (KJV)
Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again . . . went back into the judgment hall. He then called Jesus to him privately.
And said unto him, art thou the king of the Jews? . . . he asks Him, if He considered Himself to be the King of the Jews. The Jews had suggested this to Pilate, and could not prove it. Pilate wanted to know if Jesus had any regal power over that conquered people.
TEN REASONS WHY THEY KILLED JESUS
#1. Kingship (Mat.2:2-3; Jn.18:33-40; 19:12-22).
#2. Speaking the Truth (Lk.4:21-29; Jn.8:40).
#3. Healing on the Sabbath (Mat.12:9-14; Mk.3:1-6; Jn.5:16; 9:16).
#4. Jealousy (Mat.26:3-4; 27:18; Mk.14:1; 15:10; Lk.22:2; Jn.11:48).
#5. Ignorance (Mat.26:64-66; Mk.14:62-64; Jn.12:40; Acts 3:17).
#6. It fulfilled prophecy (Lk.13:33-35; Jn.12:38-40; 18:31-32; 19:11,28,36-37; Acts 2:22;36; 3:18).
#7. Claiming Sonship (Jn.5:18; 10:24-39; 19:7).
#8. Unbelief (Jn.5:38-47; 6:36; 9:40-41; 12:36-38).
#9. Claiming to be God (Jn.8:53-59; 10:33) HE WAS/IS GOD!!! (Jn.1:1-2; Heb.1:5-14).
#10. Fear of losing their authority (Jn.11:46-53; 12:10-11,19).
John 18:34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? (KJV)
Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? . . . an important question for our Lord's case. Was the word "King" meant in a political sense, with which Pilate had a right to deal, or was put to him by His accusers, who had no claims to charge Him except of a purely religious nature, with which Pilate had nothing to do. This clearly was intended to remind Pilate that nothing was proven against Him, and to caution him against being influenced by the malicious accusations of others. Jesus demanded a just trial, and claimed that Pilate should not be influenced by any falsehoods that he might have heard of Him.
John 18:35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done? (KJV)
Pilate answered, am I a Jew? . . . this was said in ridicule and contempt. He was not a Jew, neither by birth, or by religion, and so had never taken in any notions of their King, the Messiah, nor read anything about Him. He knew nothing of His distinguishing characters and properties, by which He was described . . . so it was certain that what he had said, was not of his own knowledge or observation, but came from some things the Jews had given him.
Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me . . . I immediately think of: John 1:11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not. (KJV) . . . His own people, His own nation, betrayed Him, and delivered Him to His death, as if He were an enemy to Caesar, and a traitor to His government.
What hast thou done? . . . if You do not profess to be the King of the Jews, what have you done that they want to kill You? There has to be a foundation for such a drastic charge, there must be a legitimate charge, or men of such character would never accuse a man completely innocent, and Him being one of their own nation too.
John 18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence. (KJV)
Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world . . . by saying this, He implies that He WAS a King, that He was set up and anointed by His Father from everlasting. Pro. 8:23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. (KJV) . . . He was prophesied of in the Old Testament; declared by the angel, both when he brought the news of His conception (Mat.1:20), and of His birth (Lk.2:10-12). He is not saying that His Kingdom is not going to be on this Earth someday, for He shall rule as King of kings and Lord of lords and ". . . the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea" (Isa.11:9). What He means is, His Kingdom is not going to be of this world system. Praise God for that! No more corrupt politicians! No more corruption, period! Jesus’ Kingdom will not come through worldly measures. Jesus will not be elected King by either the Republicans or the Democrats or by the United Nations. It will not be built by war, turmoil, hatred and bitterness. Pilate was a crooked politician who paid money for his job and was a puppet of Rome. He hated the Jews, but he was afraid to offend them because he might lose his job. Jesus will NOT come to His Kingdom by ANY political maneuvers. If His Kingdom were of this world, then His servants would fight. Peter had tried to defend Him, and Jesus had told him to put his sword in the sheath.
He is NOT building His Kingdom out of the present political system. The Bible teaches us that in this present age Christ is gathering out a people for His Name (Acts 15:14-17; Rom.11:25). These are called out of the world to live in the world but they are NOT of the world (1 Jn.2:15-17). The time will come when the Lord will completely remove the church from the world (1 Thes.4:13-18). Then, when Christ comes again (Zec14:1-5; Rev.19:11-21), He will establish His Kingdom! His Kingdom: (Ps.45:3,6; Isa.9:6-7; Dan.2:44; 7:14; Zec.9:9; Rom.14:17; Col.1:13).
If my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight that I should not be delivered to the Jews . . . if Christ's kingdom had been a worldly one, set up on worldly views, and governed by worldly policy, Christ would have had enough servants among the Jews, who would have taken up a stand with Him, and would have taken up arms on His behalf against the Romans. His own apostles would not have allowed Him to have been betrayed into the hands of the Jews by Judas, and Jesus would not have hindered them from attempting to rescue Him, as He did Peter; nor would they have allowed Him now to be delivered to Pilate, to put Him to death.
But now is my kingdom not from hence . . . His Kingdom does not rise or proceed from, or will it be supported by worldly values. Of the world: (1 Jn.2:15-17; 3:1; 4:5,9; 5:4-5; 5:19)
John 18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. (KJV)
Pilate therefore said unto him . . . upon this full statement of Christ, concerning His Kingly office, and the nature of His Kingdom.
Art thou a king then? . . . Pilate simply asks: “Are you a King?” Pilate is really puzzled.
Jesus answered, thou sayest that I am a king . . . very correctly stated, and Christ by these words owns and confesses, that He was a King. He states:
To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth . . . Christ's being born of a virgin, in a very miraculous way, His coming into the world, which was by assuming the human nature, along with many other things, was to bear testimony to Truth . . . to the whole Gospel, the Word of Truth and every part of it, which He constantly preached in life, and confirmed by His death; and above all to this Truth, that He indeed was a King, and had a Kingdom in a spiritual way.
Everyone that is of the truth . . . meaning all those children of God (Jn.1:12-13; 3:3-8), the sheep of His pasture and His fold (Jn.10:1-16). These KNOW the Truth that is in Jesus.
Heareth my voice . . . the voice of His Gospel; NOT only externally, but internally too, in the heart and soul! They cheerfully and willingly obey Him because of their love to Him.
Sheep, Fifteen Blessings of Sheep
#1. The Lord is their Shepherd (Ps.23:1).
#2. No want, no fear (Ps.34:9-10; 84:11).
#3. Rest in lush green pastures (Ps.23:2).
#4. Guided to still waters (Jn.4:14; 7:37-39).
#5. Restoring of the soul (Ps.23:3).
#6. Guided in right paths for His name's sake (Ps.23:3).
#7. Safe passage through the valley of the shadow of death (Ps.23:4).
#8. No fear of evil (Ps.23:4).
#9. The comfort of our Shepherd's rod and staff (Ps.23:4).
#10. Prepared and full tables of food to feast on in the presence of enemies (Ps.23:5).
#11. Heads anointed with oil (Ps.104:15).
#12. Cups running over (Ps.23:5).
#13. Confidence that goodness and mercy shall follow them to the end of life (Ps.23:6).
#14. Assurance that sins are forgiven (1 Jn.2:12).
#15. Faith that they will dwell in God's house forever (Jn.14:1-3; 1 Pet.1:4-5; Rev.21 & 22).
John 18:38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all. (KJV)
Pilate saith unto him, what is truth? . . . was Pilate a skeptic? Or, was he simply confused? He stood in the very Presence of the Lord Jesus Christ, Who was and is the Way, the Truth, and the Life, and he could not SEE Him (2 Cor.4:4).
When he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews . . . as soon as he asked the question about Truth . . . he did not even wait for an answer from Jesus, he directly goes out of the judgment hall, taking Jesus with him, and speaks to the Jews.
And saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all . . . there was NO way that he could have found any fault whatsoever! Our Lord Jesus was completely innocent and completely sin free! This confession is the shame of both Pilate and the Jews. Jesus, sinless: (Isa.53:9; Mat.27:4,19,23-24; Jn.8:46; Lk.23:41,47; 2 Cor.5:21; Heb.4:15; 7:26-27; 1 Pet.2;22; 1 Jn.2:1; 3:5).
John tells us later in his Gospel that he has written all these things so that we might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (Jn.20:31). Do you ever ask, "What is truth?" My friend, JESUS is the TRUTH! His Word is TRUTH! Do you know the Truth? Do you know Jesus? Is He Truth to you? Have you faced the reality of eternity? If not, BEWARE!!!
John 18:39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews? (KJV)
But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the Passover . . . nothing is really known about the origin or reason of this custom. Commentators have speculated on this point, but came up with nothing. The custom: (Mat.23:15; Lk.23:17). It was not a law of God or man, but a custom; and was not originally observed at the feast of the Passover, but maybe the Roman governors, by the order of Caesar, or of their own pleasure, introduced to gather favor with the affections of the people, and being repeated again and again, was now looked for. How the custom of releasing a prisoner at the Passover arose is unknown, but such customs are common under oppressive rule.
Will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews? . . . Jesus was so called by others, and which Pilate calls Him, in a sneering and sarcastic way, although he was completely willing to release Him, and was in hopes the Jews would agree to it, because nothing could be proved against Him. Pilate recommends it to them, and leaves it to them.
John 18:40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber. (KJV)
Then cried they all again . . . some say that Pilate may have made this proposal once before, and that this was the second time he made the suggestion.
Saying, not this man, but Barabbas; now Barabbas was a robber . . . the Jews chose a highway robber and a murderer instead of Messiah. Pilate probably never thought that these religious rulers would urge the people to demand that Barabbas be released. The contrast between the two was too great. Barabbas was a robber (Mat.27:16), maybe a chief robber, a captain of bandits. He was not only a person who lived by plunder, but shed the blood of many of those whom he and his gang robbed, and rose up against the Roman government (Lk.23:19). There never existed a more treacherous, cruel and murderous people than these Jews. It is sad indeed that they preferred a murderer over the Prince of peace.
The Bible makes it clear that Pilate was assured that Christ Jesus was an innocent man.
#1. "He knew that for envy they had delivered him" (Mat.27:18).
#2. "...I am innocent of the blood of this just person..." (Mat.27:24).
#3. "For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy" (Mk.15:10).
#4. "Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them" (Lk.23:20).
#5. "...I have found no cause of death in him..." (Lk.23:22).
#6. "...I find in him no fault at all" (Lk.23:4; Jn.18:38).
#7. "...From thenceforth Pilate sought to release him..." (Jn.19:12).
#8. "...Pilate, when he was determined to let him go" (Acts 3:13).
In spite of all that he felt and knew, Pilate did not have the courage to release Jesus.
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