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Types of Christ in the Old Testament

Some Examples of Types of Christ

Foundation and cornerstones are also used as 'types' or symbols or images or examples of the Christ, both in the Old and New Testaments. Isaiah 28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste. (KJV) . . . It is Christ, and Christ ALONE upon whom we build our faith for eternal life. Matthew 7:24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: (KJV) . . . Christ is the Foundation on which we must build to keep us safe.

Manna was the food that miraculously sustained the Israelites in the desert after God freed them from their oppression in Egypt. Manna fell from Heaven and was collected in the morning. This should be a warning to us to come to Christ early, for NO one knows the number of our days. If we wait too long, we may not have the chance to gather the manna of Christ’s salvation. John 6:32-35 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. [33] For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. [34] Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. [35] And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. (KJV) . . . Manna was miracle food for the body; Christ IS Miracle Bread for our soul.

All through the Bible, sacrificial offerings are most often types of Christ. This offering from Leviticus is an example. Leviticus 1:3 If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD. (KJV) . . . This 'type' is a very clear picture of Christ and His Sacrifice for us. He is our perfect, blemish-less sacrifice Who willingly surrendered His life for us.

Many different people in the Bible are also 'types' of Christ. Isaac is one example. God asked Abraham to sacrifice his beloved son, Isaac. God had promised Abraham that through Isaac, the nations of the earth would be blessed. Abraham trusted God and prepared to make the heartbreaking sacrifice. Genesis 22:7 And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? (KJV)

Isaac was to be that sacrifice, but God replaced his sacrifice with that of a ram. Isaac did not struggle or argue with his father. Apparently he was willing to let his father sacrifice his life to God. It is through Isaac’s lineage that Christ came and Christ fulfilled the sacrifice that Isaac was willing to make because his father asked him to. Christ was also willing to make His sacrifice at His Father’s command, and did so for our sakes.


1. Abel's Offering. Genesis 4:4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering: (KJV) . . . Abel's offering not only is favored by Jehovah, but reveals the importance and value of blood sacrifices, as had been instructed to Adam and Eve as they left the Garden of Eden. By his sacrifice, Abel showed that he was righteous . . . (obtained witness that he was righteous) by FAITH. Hebrews 9:22 And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. (KJV) Hebrews 11:4 By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh. (KJV) . . . The blood sacrifice doctrine was NOT originated by man but by God! Its 'type' would be fulfilled in the death of Christ Jesus on the cross and is/was the plan and purpose of God.

2. Noah's Altar and Sacrifice. Genesis 8:20-22 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. [2]1 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. [22] While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease. (KJV) . . . The blood sacrifice was necessary, for the same reason as with Abel's sacrifice. But here we see the building of an altar, which is a new responsibility. The altar is one of the most important features of Old Testament doctrine. Exodus 20:24-26 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. [25] And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. [26] Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon. (KJV) . . . God states that the altar represents NO work of man's own hands. It is the sacrifice on the altar which is blessed by God to the benefit of man's soul, NOT man's work. It is significant that the divine instruction of the building of an altar immediately follows the giving of the Law.

The altar and the sacrifice does NOT find man in the position of a DOER, but of a worshiper. God will meet the sinner at the altar WITHOUT a hewn stone or step. A place of worship requires absolutely NO human workmanship to erect, or human effort to approach. Any effort on our part could only pollute the worship according to God, and the step could only display human "nakedness." The altar and sacrifice looked forward to Christ. Today it is the meeting place where God meets the sinner in the Person and Work of His only begotten Son, Jesus Christ, where all the claims of law, of justice, and of conscience are perfectly answered!

BUT . . . man has in every age, in one way or another, "lifted up his tool" in the erection of his altar, or approached the altar by steps of his own making . . . thus the result of ALL such attempts has been "pollution" and "nakedness." Isaiah 64:6 But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away. (KJV) . . . WHO would dare to approach Almighty God clothed in "filthy rags"? WHO would stand to worship with a revealed "nakedness"? What could be more ridiculous than to consider approaching God in any way which involves either pollution or nakedness? And yet, this is what happens every time in when ANY human effort is put forth to open the sinner's way to God. Not only is there NO need for such effort, but defilement and nakedness are stamped all over it. God has come down so close to the sinner, even in the very depths of his ruin, that there is NO need for his lifting up the tool of legality, or ascending the steps of self-righteousness.

John 3:15-16 That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life. [16] For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (KJV) . . . God loved us SO much that He sent His Son to save us. Jesus loved us SO much, He came, fully knowing He was the Sacrifice clearly shown in the Old testament!

John 6:28-29 Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the works of God? [29] Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent. (KJV) . . . The only work that is expected of anyone is to BELIEVE God and accept His Son!

Romans 5:1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: (KJV) . . . We are declared "not guilty" in the courts of Heaven when we by faith believe God (1 John 5:10-13), and accept Christ to save us.
Ephesians 2:8-9 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: [9] Not of works, lest any man should boast. (KJV) . . . Our faith, like Abraham's is counted as righteousness. Galatians 3:6 Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. (KJV)
1 Corinthians 1:30 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption: (KJV) . . . Jesus paid it all and IS our ALL!


The Passover Lamb. (Ex.12:21-28). Israel's national and abiding redemption, as well as the safety of the firstborn in each home, was secured by the passover (paschal) lamb. So far-reaching is this redemption that Israel was required, in recognition of it, to re-enact the Passover throughout all her generations . . . NOT as a renewal of redemption, but as a memorial.

Exodus 12:22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. [23] For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. (KJV)

We have to consider the passover lamb in two aspects: the first is the ground of peace, and the center of unity. The blood on the lintel (door frame) secured Israel's peace. "When I see the blood, I will pass over you." There was nothing more required of them in order to enjoy peace, as to the destroying angel, than the application of the blood of sprinkling. Death did its work in every house all through Egypt. But God, in His great mercy, accepted an unblemished substitute for Israel, on which the sentence of death was executed. Thus God's claims and Israel's need were met by one and the same thing, that being the blood of the lamb. The blood outside proved that all was perfect within them, thus peace was possible. Any doubt in an Israelite would have been a dishonor . . . they had to believe God!

The second aspect of the Passover was peaceful, joyous and holy fellowship. Israel being saved by the blood was one thing, and Israel feeding on the lamb was another. They were saved only by the blood; but the object round which they were gathered was the roasted lamb. The blood of the lamb is the foundation both of our connection with God, and our connection with one another. Aside from the Perfect Atonement of Christ, there could be NO fellowship either with God or His people. It is with a living Head we are connected, and to "a living stone" we have come. He is our Center. We have found peace through His precious Blood. He is our gathering point and connecting link. Matthew 18:20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. (KJV) . . . The Holy Spirit is He who gathers us. Christ Himself is the Object to which we are gathered; and when we are assembled, we are to be characterized by holiness, so that the Lord our God may dwell among us. The Holy Spirit can gather ONLY to Christ. He CANNOT gather to a system, a name, a doctrine, a specific church, a preacher or an ordinance. He gathers to a PERSON, and that Person is the glorified Christ in Heaven at the right hand of God (Lk.22:69; Ac.2:33; 5:31; 7:56; Ro.8:34; Col.3:1; Heb.1:3,13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; 1 Pet.3:22).

The assembly of God's people is a special gathering! Men gather on any ground, around any object . . . but when the Holy Spirit assembles, it is strictly on the ground of accomplished redemption, around the Person of Jesus Christ, in order to form a holy dwelling place for God.

1 Corinthians 3:16-17 Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? [17] If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are. (KJV)
Ephesians 2:21-22 In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord: [22] In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit. (KJV)
1 Peter 2:4-5 To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious, [5] Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. (KJV)

There are six necessary requirements in the passover lamb: a lamb without blemish; a lamb that was tested; the lamb slain; the blood to be applied; the blood a perfect propitiation against divine judgment; the lamb partaken of as food. That Christ is the antitype in all this could hardly be doubted by anyone.

The five offerings. (Lev. 1:1-7:38). These offerings are: the burnt offering, the meal offering, the peace offering, the sin offering, and the trespass offering. These are rightly classed as sweet savor offerings (the first three) and non-sweet savor offerings (the last two). The sweet savor offerings represent Christ offering Himself without spot to God (Heb. 9:14), and this represents Jesus taking our place . . . being our Substitute . . . as the sinner is completely void of all merit before God.

Hebrews 9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? (KJV)

Romans 3:10 As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: (KJV)
Galatians 3:22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. (KJV)
The grounds of a forgiveness both just and complete in the death of Christ is thus foreshadowed in the non-sweet savor offerings.

The two birds (Lev. 14:1-7). As on the Day of Atonement when two goats were required to fulfill the entire picture of Christ's death, so two birds are required in the cleansing of leprosy . . . the type of sin. The first bird slain speaks of Christ "delivered for our offences," while the second bird, dipped in the blood of the first bird and released, speaks of Christ "raised again for our justification." (Rom. 4:25).

The two goats (Lev.16:7-10). On the Day of Atonement, two goats were required to fulfill the entire picture of Christ's death. The goats, though used in different ways, made up only one offering. They were both presented before the Lord, and the disposal of them determined by lot. The priest, placing one of the goats on his right hand and the other on his left, took his station by the altar, and cast into an urn two pieces of gold the same size, one inscribed: "for the Lord," and the other for "Azazel" (the scapegoat). He would put both his hands into the box and took up a coin in each. The coin in his right hand he put on the head of the goat which stood on his right, and that in his left he dropped on the other. In this manner the fate of each was decided. The goat that was slain prefigured Jesus' human nature and His death; the goat that escaped pointed to His resurrection. The one shows the atonement for sin, and the ground for justification; the other Christ's victory, and the total removal of sin in the sanctification of the soul.

The repeating of the the sacrifices, showed there was in them but a feeble effort toward making atonement; this could be done only by offering up the body of Christ once for all; and that Sacrifice need NOT ever be repeated.

The day of atonement. Exodus 30:10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin offering of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your generations: it is most holy unto the LORD. (KJV) . . . Also see: Lev.16:30; 23:27; Num.29:7; Heb.9:7.

The extent and accomplishment of Christ's death is set forth in magnificent detail by the events and specific requirements of the Day of Atonement.

The offering of the high priest for himself has no antitype in Christ (Heb. 7:26, 27). The interest centers on the two goats and the high priest.

(1) All is done by the high priest (Heb. 1:3, "by Himself"), the people only bring the sacrifice (Mt. 26:47; 27:24, 25).

(2) The goat slain (Jehovah's lot) is that idea of Christ's death which vindicates the holiness and righteousness of God as expressed in the law (Rom. 3:24-26), and is expiatory.

(3) The living goat typifies the idea of Christ's work which puts away our sins from before God (Heb. 9:26; Rom. 8:33, 34).

(4) The high priest entering the Holy of Holies, typifies Christ entering "heaven itself" with "His own blood" for us (Heb. 9:11, 12). His blood makes that to be a "throne of grace," and "mercy seat," which else must have been a throne of judgment.

(5) For us, the priests of the New Covenant, there is what Israel never had, a rent veil (Mt. 27:51; Heb. 10:19, 20). For worship and blessing, we can enter, ONLY in virtue of His precious Blood, where He is, in the Holiest (Heb. 4: 14-16; 10:19-22).

The atonement of Christ, as interpreted by the O. T. sacrificial types, has ALL the necessary elements: (1) It is substitutionary . . . the offering (sacrifice) takes the offerer's place in death. (2) The law is not evaded but honored . . . every sacrificial death was an execution of the sentence of the law. (3) The sinlessness of Him who bore our sins is expressed in every animal sacrifice . . . it must be without blemish. (4) The effect of the atoning work of Christ is typified: (a) in the promises, "it shall be forgiven him"; and (b) in the peace-offering, the expression of fellowship . . . the highest privilege of the saint.

The specific features required are: the bullock for the high priest, the substitution of the animal for the sinful person, the upholding of the law, the perfect character of the sacrifice, the sin covered by the blood of the first goat, and the guilt taken away by the dismissal of the second goat. Isn't God good???

The red heifer (Num. 19:1-22). The New Testament doctrine of cleansing for the believer is clearly stated. 1 John 1:7-9 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. [8] If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. [9] If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (KJV) . . . Any defilement is removed by the precious Blood of Christ (1 Pet.1:18-19) upon confession. The type of such cleansing, which also served a great purpose in the economy of the Mosaic system, is seen in the ordinance of the red heifer.

The heifer was completely burned outside the camp, even its blood, except that which was sprinkled directly before the tabernacle of the congregation, where the people were to meet God. There the blood was sprinkled seven times, a perfect testimony in the eyes of God to the atonement made for sin. The people had access there because of the value of this blood. The priest threw into the fire cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet . . . meaning all that was of man and his human glory in the world. From the cedar down to the hyssop is the expression of nature from her highest elevation to her lowest. Scarlet is external glory (the world). All was burned in the fire which consumed the sacrifice for sin . . . looking forward to Christ.

To have sufficient supply of the cleansing mixture, Jewish writers say that a red heifer was sacrificed every year, and that the ashes, mingled with the sprinkling ingredients, were distributed through all the cities and towns of Israel.

Notice a solemn and important fact: God provides for cleansing, but in NO way can tolerate anything in His awesome Presence unsuited to it. The Presence God judges what is suited for His Presence. The man was who was defiled and could not go into God's tabernacle. To cleanse the defiled person, they took some water, into which they put the ashes of the heifer, and the man was sprinkled on the third and on the seventh days; making him clean.

The necessary features of this ordinance were: an animal without blemish (Christ), the slaying of the animal (Christ crucified), every part consumed by fire (Jesus died), the retaining of the ashes for cleansing (His resurrection), the mingling of the ashes with water (God's grace), and the application of the water and ashes for the cleansing of defilement (needed faith).

Types of Christ in the Old Testament

Type of Israel, Jonah

Types . . . Eve Bride of Christ

Types of Christ's Death, Coats of Skin

Types of Christ's Death, Old Testament Sacrifices

Types of Christ's Death, Tabernacle

Types of Christ, Adam

Types of Christ, David

Types of Christ, Elijah

Types of Christ, Elisha

Types of Christ, Examples

Types of Christ, Isaac

Types of Christ, Job

Types of Christ and His Resurrection, Jonah

Types of Christ, Joseph

Types of Christ, Melchezidek

Types of Christ, Moses

Types of Christ, the Pillar of Cloud and Fire

Types of Christ, Samson

Types of Christ, the Rock

Types of Christ, the Brazen Serpent

Types of Christ, the Exodus

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